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New Castle Disease

It is one of the most dreaded diseases of poultry as it can cause very heavy mortality at a very high speed.

The disease is caused by a virus of paramyxo group and classified into many serotypes based on the virulence.

Chicken is the natural host but vast majority of birds are susceptible to infection including ducks and turkey .


• Depression, prostration, loss of appetite

• Greenish/yellowish diarrhea

• Nervous signs like in coordination, twitching of neck

• Mortality heavy in acute outbrea

Post Mortem Lesions

•  Pin pointed haemorrhages at the tip of proventricular glands

• Hemorrhagic/ diphtheritic ulcers on the intestine and caecal tonsil


Typical lesions are diagnostic. Laboratory diagnosis with hemagglutination and Inhibition tests can be employed.


Treatment and Prevention

Effective vaccines are available for prevention. F vaccine given at the day old stage followed by RDK vaccine at 2 months can protect the bird.

Infectious Bronchitis

It is a highly infectious viral disease of poultry of worldwide distribution. It can affect any age, breed or type.

Chicken is the only bird that is naturally infected by this virus. There are different serotypes of IB  virus and many strains continue to evolve.


• Respiratory signs like coughing, sneezing and rales in chicks

• Drop in egg productionand hatchability

• Production of deformed, thin shelled, rough eggs with low internal egg quality

• Mortality low in uncomplicated cases

Post Mortem Lesions

• Catarrhal exudates in nasal cavity, caseous plugs in bronchi in chicks

• Enlargement of kidney with urates deposition and distention of ureters with pasty uric acid  in uraemic form

• Egg peritonitis in layer


Lesions are suggestive and can help in diagnosis. ELISA can also give a reliable diagnosis.


Vaccines are available for prevention.

Infectious Bursal Disease (Gumboro Disease)

Infectious Bursal Disease(IBD) is a highly contagious viral disease of young chicken causing serious eco-nomic losses. The virus targets the Bursa of Fabricius, an important part of immune system making the bird susceptible to other infections. Vaccination failures may happen due to the associated immunosupression.


• Dullness, depression and death

• Whitish diarrhea

• Mortality heavy in the initial out breaks in a farm Post Mortem Lesions

• Hemorrhages in the thigh and pectoral muscles

• Bursa enlarged, edematous and hyperemic with bloody or mucoid contents inside.

• Bursa firm and atrophic in chronic form

• Kidney may show nephrosis and mottling.


Bursal lesions are characteristic. Age of the birds affected and muscular lesions help in diagnosis


Vaccines are available for prevention.

Avian Influenza

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza(HPAI) is a highly lethal systemic disease affecting vast majority of

birds caused by the Influenza Type A virus. Because of the zoonotic as well as pandemic potential, the disease gained much public health importance. Water birds and migratory birds act as carriers and spread the infection.


• Sudden, heavy and unusual mortality reaching almost 100% without any clinical signs

• Edema of face, cyanosis of comb and wattles in less fulminating cases

• Nervous disorders like tremors, torticollis and opisthotonus Post mortem lesions

• Extremely variable depending on the severity

• Hemorrhagic lesions (petechial to ecchymotic) on all the visceral organs, serous membranes,  skin

and muscles in acute cases

• Lungs pneumonic

• Enteritis, air saculitis, spleenomegali


Sudden, heavy, unusual mortality arise the suspicion. The disease is to be differentiated from the other

fulminating diseases of chicken like Newcaslte Disease,

IBD, Fowl cholera etc.


Currently vaccines are not used in India.

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