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Pests of Rice

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Green leafhopper

  • Use resistant varieties like IR 50, CR 1009, Co 46, PTB 2 and PTB 18.
  • Nursery should not be raised near the lamp posts
  • Apply neem cake @ 12.5 kg/20 cent nursery as basal dose
  • Maintain the water level at 2.5 cm for 3 days

Brown plant leafhopper (Nilaparvata lugens)

  • Use resistant varieties like Aruna, Karnataka, Karthika, Krishnaveni, Makon,
  • Abhey, Asha, Divya, Py 3, Co 42, Ptb 33 and Ptb 21.
  • Avoid close planting and provide 30 cm rogue spacing at every 2.5 m to reduce the pest incidence.
  • Control irrigation by intermittent draining
  • Set up light traps to monitor pest population and to control
  • Release of natural enemies like Lycosa pseudoannulataCyrtorhinus lividipennis
  • Drain the water before the use of insecticides and direct the spray towards the base of the plants
  • Spray neem seed kernel extract 5% (25 kg/ha) (or) neem oil 2% (10 l/ha)

White backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera)

  • Release of egg parasitoid, Anagrus sp. and adults and nymphs of the dryinid
  • Pachygonatopus sp. Predators recorded on the insect are Coccinella arcuata, Cyrtorrhinus lividipennis, Tytthus parviceps

Mealybug (Brevennia rehi)

  • The mealy bug is parasitised by Adelencyrtus sp., Dolihoceros sp., Gyranusa sp., Parasyrphophagus sp.,Xanthoencyrtus sp and predated upon by Gitonides perspicax, Leucopis luteicomis, Scymnus sp., Pullus sp.,Anatrichus pygmaeusMepachymerus ensifer.
  • Remove the grasses from the bunds and trim the bunds during the main field preparation before transplanting.
  • Remove and destroy the affected plants.

Rice black bug (Scotinophora lurida and S. coarctata)

  • Keep the field free from weeds and grasses
  • Drain the excess water from the field
  • Set up light trap during the full moon period to attract large number of bugs and kill
  • Conserve the predators viz., spiders, coccinellids and wasps to check the pest
  • Ducks can be allowed in the field to pick up the bugs

Rice earhead bug (Leptocorisa acuta)
Botanical powder formulations

  • Neem seed kernel extract 5%
  • Notchi leaf powder extract 5%
  • Ipomoea leaf powder extract 5%
  • Prosopis leaf powder extract 5%

Paddy stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas)

  • Grow resistant varieties like Ratna, Jaya, TKM 6, IR 20 and IR 26
  • Clip the tip of seedlings before transplanting to eliminate egg masses
  • Avoid close planting and continuous water stagnation at early stages
  • Collect and destroy the egg masses
  • Pull out and destroy the affected tillers
  • Set up light traps to attract and kill the moths
  • Harvest the crop upto the ground level and disturb the stubbles with plough immediately after the harvest
  • Release the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma japonicum on 30 and 37 DAT twice @ 5 ml/ha/release followed by monocrotophos 36 SL spray thrice @ 1000 ml/ha on 58, 65 and 72 DAT reduce the damage.
  • Apply Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki and neem seed kernel extract in the combination of 2.5 kg/ml and 1% to reduce the oviposition by the stemborer.

Gall midge (Orseolia oryzae)

  • Encourage early planting of the crop to escape from infestation
  • Use resistant varieties like MDU-3, Shakthi, Vikram, Sureka
  • Harvest the crop and plough immediately
  • Remove the alternate host and adjust the time of planting
  • Use quick growing varieties
  • Set up light trap @ 1 / ha as a monitoring device
  • Infra red light trap attracts gall midge effectively
  • Release larval parasitoid: Platygaster oryzae through parasitized galls @ 1 per 10 m2 in the main field at 10 DAT.
  • The carabid beetle, Ophionia indica is an effective predator.
  • Conserve the spider predators like Tetragnatha and Argiope catenulata in rice ecosystem to feed on the adult midge.

Swarming caterpillar (Spodoptera mauritia)

  • Release larval parasitoids Apanteles ruficrusMeteorus sp., Charops bicolor,
  • C. dominans, Drino unisetosa, Pseudoperichaeta orientalisStrobliomyia aegyptia, Pseudogonia cinerascens, Tachinia fallan, Cuphocera varia, Sturmia inconspicua, Chelonus sp., Euplectrus euplexiaeE. spodopterae.
  • Pupa by Netelia sp., Actia sp., Drino sp. and Isomera cinerascensHexamermis sp. a parasitic nematode parasitises the larva.
  • The vertebrate predators of the larvae are Corvus splendens, C. macrorhynchus, Bubalcus coromandus, Ardeela grayi, Amaurovius phoenicocurus, Acridotheres tristis.
  • Flood the nursery to expose the hiding larvae to the surface and thus birds pick
  • them up.
  • Kerosenate the water while irrigation to suffocate and kill the larvae.
  • Allow the ducks into the field to feed on the larvae.

Rice case worm (Nymphula depunctalis)

  • Release larval parasitoids viz., Elasmus sp., Apanteles sp., Bracon sp., Hormiues sp.
  • Release pupal parasitoids viz., Pediobius sp., Apsilops sp., Eupteromalus parnarae
  • Drain water from the field
  • Dislodge the cases by running a rope over the young crop

Leaf folder (or) leaf roller (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis)

  • Use resistant varieties like TNAU LFR 831311, Cauveri, Akashi, TKM-6, IET 7511, IET 9225 and IET 9797.
  • Clipping of affected leaves reduces the pest population.
  • Keep the bunds clean by trimming them and remove the grassy weeds.
  • Avoid use of excessive nitrogenous fertilizer.
  • Set up light traps to attack and kill the moths.
  • Release Trichogramma chilonis on 37, 44 and 51 DAT thrice followed by three sprays of monocrotophos 36 SL @ 1000 ml/ha on 58, 65 and 72 DAT.
  • Spray neem seed kernel extract 5% @ 25 kg .

Grasshopper (Hieroglyphus banian)

  • Expose the eggs to be picked up by birds after ploughing and trim the bunds
  • Bio-control agents such as Cacallus spp., Barycomus spp. and Seelio spp., which are egg parasites should be encouraged.

Short horned grasshopper (Oxya nitidula)

  • Expose the eggs during summer ploughing and they will be picked up by birds.

Spiny beetle / Rice hispa (Dicladispa armigera)

  • The leaf tips containing blotch mines should be plucked and destroyed
  • Manual collection and killing of beetles with hand nets may help in reducing the population of the pest.

Integrated Pest Management in Rice
A. Cultural method

  • Remove / destroy stubbles after harvest and keep the field free from weeds.
  • Trim and plaster the bunds of rice field to expose the eggs of grasshoppers and to eliminate the bugs breeding in grasses.
  • Form the buds narrow and short to reduce the damage by rodents.
  • Use resistant varieties wherever available.
  • Provide effective drainage wherever there is problem of BPH.
  • Clip the tip of seedling before transplanting to prevent the carry over of egg masses of rice yellow stem borer from nursery to mainfield.
  • Organise synchronized planting wherever possible.
  • Leave 30 cm rogue space at every 2.5 m to reduce damage by BPH and rodents.
  • Avoid use of excessive nitrogenous fertilizers.
  • Use irrigation water judiciously (Alternative webbing x drying reduce BPH and case worm).
  • Remove the egg masses of stem borer in the mainfield.

B. Mechanical methods

  • Dig out the rat burrows and destroy the rats and young ones at the beginning of the season.
  • Set up light traps to monitor and control pests.
  • Set up-bow traps to kill rodents.

C. Biological methods

  • Release Trichogramma japonicum on 30 and 37 DAT twice 5 ml/ha/release against stem borer.
  • Release Trichogramma chilonis on 37, 44 and 51 DAT (Thrice) @ 5 ml/ha/release against leaf folder.
  • Release of Platygaster oryzae parasitized galls @ 1 per 10 m2 in the mainfield on, 10 DAT against gall midge.
  • Set up owl perches to reduce rat damage.

D. Plant products

  • Spray neem seed kernel extract 5% (25 kg/ha), neem oil 3% (15 lit/ha) to control brown planthopper.
  • Spray botanical powder formulation viz., NSKE, Vitex negundo (Notchi), Prosopis juliflora and Ipomoea carnealeaf extract 5% to control earhead bug and black bug.

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0 #1 luigi4235 2015-02-23 17:03

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