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Biofertilizers

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Biofertilizers are defined as preparations containing living cells or latent cells of efficient strains of microorganisms that help crop plants’ uptake of nutrients by their interactions in the rhizosphere when applied through seed or soil.  They accelerate certain microbial processes in the soil which augment the extent of availability of nutrients in a form easily assimilated by plants.

Very often microorganisms are not as efficient in natural surroundings as one would expect them to be and therefore artificially multiplied cultures of efficient selected microorganisms play a vital role in accelerating the microbial processes in soil.

Use of biofertilizers is one of the important components of integrated nutrient management, as they are cost effective and renewable source of plant nutrients to supplement the chemical fertilizers for sustainable agriculture. Several microorganisms and their association with crop plants are being exploited in the production of biofertilizers. They can be grouped in different ways based on their nature and function.

S. No.

Groups

Examples

N2  fixing Biofertilizers

1.

Free-living

Azotobacter, Beijerinkia, Clostridium, Klebsiella, Anabaena, Nostoc,

2.

Symbiotic

Rhizobium, Frankia, Anabaena azollae

3.

Associative Symbiotic

Azospirillum

P Solubilizing Biofertilizers

1.

Bacteria

Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum, Bacillus subtilis
Bacillus circulans, Pseudomonas striata

2.

Fungi

Penicillium sp, Aspergillus awamori

P Mobilizing Biofertilizers

1.

Arbuscular mycorrhiza

Glomus sp.,Gigaspora sp.,Acaulospora sp.
Scutellospora sp. Sclerocystis sp.

2.

Ectomycorrhiza

Laccaria sp., Pisolithus sp.Boletus sp.Amanita sp.

3.

Ericoid mycorrhizae

Pezizella ericae

4.

Orchid mycorrhiza

Rhizoctonia solani

Biofertilizers for Micro nutrients

1.

Silicate and Zinc solubilizers

Bacillus sp.

Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

1.

Pseudomonas

Pseudomonas fluorescens


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