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Banana

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Botanical Name: Musa spp.
Varieties:
Nendran:
Manjeri Nendran:Early maturing, low height, comparatively high yielding
Kaliyethan:Common variety in Trivandrum district
Nedunendran:Fruits are bigger in size, high yielding
Chengazhikkodan:Fruits are tasty and golden yellow in colour
Attunendran:Suitable for rain fed crop
Mettuppalayam:Tall variety, high yielding, long duration
Mindoli:Late maturing, Fruits are bigger in size.
Zanzibar:Very big fruits, with two – three hands in a bunch, lacks male inflorescence
Big Ebanga:High yielding.Does not have male inflorescene. 
Table varieties: Robusta, Palayankodan,, Poovan, Njalipoovan, Kadali, Chenkadali, Dwarf Cavendish, Karpooravally, Poomkalli, Koompillakannan, Chinali, Virupakshi.
Culinary varieties: Monthan, Batheesa, Nendrapadathy
Climate & Soil: Tropical humid climate, Well-drained soils with good fertility
Season: April-May , August-September and October.Adjust the time of planting so as to avoid high temperature and drought at the time of emergence of bunches. 
Seed rate
Seed Treatment: Remove the roots and outer skin of the rhizomes. Dip them in a solution of Chlorpyriphos @ 2.5 ml/l for 20mts. Drain the solution. The rhizomes are to be smeared with cowdung solution and ash and dried in the sun for about 3-4 days and stored in shade up to 15 days protecting from rain before planting.
Spacing: Pit size 50 x 50 x 50 cm
Nendran(pure)- 2m X 2m 
Poovan, Chenkadali, Palayankodan, Monthan - 2.1 x 2.1 m 
Robusta - 2.4 x 1.8 m
Tissue culture banana - 2mX2m
Nutrient management : In order to adjust the acidity in the soil, apply lime at the rate of 500g to 1 kg. Apply Organic manure @10 kg/plant, NPK - 190:115:300g/plant
Tissue culture Nendran banana: Apply Organic manure @20 kg/plantNPK- 300:115:450 g/plant in 6 splits.
Crop Management:

  • During summer months, irrigate once in three days.
  • Ensure good drainage and prevent water logging.
  • Mulching the basin with crop waste or waste quality paddy straw, especially for the rain fed crop will reduce the moisture loss through evaporation. It will have an additional benefit of reducing the weed growth as well as improving the organic matter content, and thereby considerably improving the bunch yield.
  • Sow the seeds of green manure crops at the time of planting, cut and incorporate just before flowering.
  • Remove male inflorescence and small fingers in lower hands
  • Wrap bunch one month after the emergence
  • Provide propping after bunch emergance.
  • Remove all suckers that are formed before the bunch emergence
    Pest Management :
    • Banana rhizome weevil, nematodes, aphids : Field sanitation, neem cake 1kg/plant, 25 g phorate 10G (eg. Thimet 10G) or 20 g carbofuran 3G (eg Furadan 3G) each 20 days, 75 days and 165 days after planting
    • Banana pseudostem weevil : : Field sanitation, Dersban (20%EC) or chlorpyrifos (0.05%) at 2.5 ml per litre, Smear psuedostem mud + Sevin 50WP(4 g/l)
    • Leaf eating caterpillar : : Ekalux (25% EC) 2ml/l.
    Disease Management :
    • Bunchy top disease, Kokkan disease : Vector control, Clean cultivation.
    • Sigatoka leaf spot : Field sanitation, 1% Bordeaux mixture, Fytolan 4g/l. .
    • Panama wilt : Bavistin 1.5 – 2 g/l, lime 1 kg/pit. .
    • Bacterial wilt : 5kg bleaching powder per ha in irrigation water, soil drench 4g Fytolan 1.5g Streptocylin in 1litre of water. .
    • Infectious chlorosis : Insect control, field sanitation. .
    Harvesting: Cut gently with a sharp knife, the bunches should not be kept on sand , dehand, grade and pack.
    Yield: 20- 35 t/ha

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