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Banana

Tissue Culture Banana

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What is Tissue Culture ?

The propagation of a plant by using a plant part or single cell or group cell in a test tube under very controlled and hygienic conditions is called "Tissue Culture".

Status in India

Banana is a globally important fruit crop with 97.5 million tones of production. In India it supports livelihood of million of people. With total annual production of 16.91 million tones from 490.70 thousand ha., with national average of 33.5 T/ha. Maharashtra ranks first in production with 60 T/ha. Banana contributes 37% to total fruit production in India.

Banana is one of the major and economically important fruit crop of Maharashtra. Banana occupy 20% area among the total area under crop in India. Maharashtra ranks second in area and first in productivity in India. Jalgaon is a major Banana growing district in Maharashtra which occupy 50,000 hectares area under Banana. But most of Banana is grown by planting suckers. The technology development in agriculture is very fast, it results in developing Tissue Culture Technique.

Agro Climate

Banana is basically a tropical crop, grows well in temperature range of 13ºC – 38ºC with RH regime of 75-85%. In India this crop is being cultivated in climate ranging from humid tropical to dry mild subtropics through selection of appropriate varieties like Grandnaine. Chilling injury occurs at temperatures below 12ºC. The normal growth of the banana begins at 18ºC, reaches optimum at 27ºC, then declines and comes to a halt at 38ºC. Higher temperature causes sun scorching. High velocity wind which exceeds 80 km phrs damages the crop.

Soil

Soil for banana should have good drainage, adequate fertility and moisture. Deep, rich loamy soil with pH between 6-7.5 are most preferred for banana cultivation. Ill drained, poorly aerated and nutritionally deficient soils are not suitable for banana. Saline solid, calcareous soil are not suitable for Banana cultivation. Avoided soil of low laying areas, very sandy & heavy black cotton with ill drainage.

A soil that is not too acidic & not too alkaline, rich in organic material with high nitrogen content, adequate phosphorus level and plenty of potash are good for banana.

Varieties

In India banana is grown under diverse conditions and production systems. Selection of varieties, therefore is based on a large number of varieties catering to various kinds of needs and situations. However, around 20 cultivars viz. Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta, Monthan, Poovan, Nendran, Red banana, Nyali, Safed Velchi, Basarai, Ardhapuri, Rasthali, Karpurvalli, Karthali and Grandnaine etc..

Grandnaine is gaining popularity and may soon be the most preferred variety due to its tolerance to biotic stresses and good quality bunches. Bunches have well spaced hands with straight orientation of figures, bigger in size. Fruit develops attractive uniform yellow colour with better self life & quality than other cultivars.

Land Preparation

Prior to planting banana, grow the green manuring crop like daincha, cowpea etc. and burry it in the soil. The land can be ploughed 2-4 times and leveled. Use ratovator or harrow to break the clod and bring the soil to a fine tilt. During soil preparation basal dose of FYM is added and thoroughly mixed into the soil.

A pit size of 45cm x 45cm x 45cm is normally required. The pits are to be refilled with topsoil mixed with 10 kg of FYM (well decomposed), 250 gm of Neem cake and 20 gm of conbofuron. Prepared pits are left to solar radiation helps in killing the harmful insects, is effective against soil borne diseases and aids aeration. In saline alkali soil where PH is above 8 Pit mixture is to be modified to incorporate organic matter.

Addition of organic matter helps in reducing salinity while addition of purlite improves, porosity and aeration. Alternative to planting in pits is planting in furrows. Depnding on soil strata one can choose appropriate method as well as spacing and depth at which plant is required to be planted.

 

 

 


Source:http://www.jainpipe.com/Tissue/tissueculture.htm


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Banana

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Botanical Name: Musa spp.
Varieties:
Nendran:
Manjeri Nendran:Early maturing, low height, comparatively high yielding
Kaliyethan:Common variety in Trivandrum district
Nedunendran:Fruits are bigger in size, high yielding
Chengazhikkodan:Fruits are tasty and golden yellow in colour
Attunendran:Suitable for rain fed crop
Mettuppalayam:Tall variety, high yielding, long duration
Mindoli:Late maturing, Fruits are bigger in size.
Zanzibar:Very big fruits, with two – three hands in a bunch, lacks male inflorescence
Big Ebanga:High yielding.Does not have male inflorescene. 
Table varieties: Robusta, Palayankodan,, Poovan, Njalipoovan, Kadali, Chenkadali, Dwarf Cavendish, Karpooravally, Poomkalli, Koompillakannan, Chinali, Virupakshi.
Culinary varieties: Monthan, Batheesa, Nendrapadathy
Climate & Soil: Tropical humid climate, Well-drained soils with good fertility
Season: April-May , August-September and October.Adjust the time of planting so as to avoid high temperature and drought at the time of emergence of bunches. 
Seed rate
Seed Treatment: Remove the roots and outer skin of the rhizomes. Dip them in a solution of Chlorpyriphos @ 2.5 ml/l for 20mts. Drain the solution. The rhizomes are to be smeared with cowdung solution and ash and dried in the sun for about 3-4 days and stored in shade up to 15 days protecting from rain before planting.
Spacing: Pit size 50 x 50 x 50 cm
Nendran(pure)- 2m X 2m 
Poovan, Chenkadali, Palayankodan, Monthan - 2.1 x 2.1 m 
Robusta - 2.4 x 1.8 m
Tissue culture banana - 2mX2m
Nutrient management : In order to adjust the acidity in the soil, apply lime at the rate of 500g to 1 kg. Apply Organic manure @10 kg/plant, NPK - 190:115:300g/plant
Tissue culture Nendran banana: Apply Organic manure @20 kg/plantNPK- 300:115:450 g/plant in 6 splits.
Crop Management:

  • During summer months, irrigate once in three days.
  • Ensure good drainage and prevent water logging.
  • Mulching the basin with crop waste or waste quality paddy straw, especially for the rain fed crop will reduce the moisture loss through evaporation. It will have an additional benefit of reducing the weed growth as well as improving the organic matter content, and thereby considerably improving the bunch yield.
  • Sow the seeds of green manure crops at the time of planting, cut and incorporate just before flowering.
  • Remove male inflorescence and small fingers in lower hands
  • Wrap bunch one month after the emergence
  • Provide propping after bunch emergance.
  • Remove all suckers that are formed before the bunch emergence
    Pest Management :
    • Banana rhizome weevil, nematodes, aphids : Field sanitation, neem cake 1kg/plant, 25 g phorate 10G (eg. Thimet 10G) or 20 g carbofuran 3G (eg Furadan 3G) each 20 days, 75 days and 165 days after planting
    • Banana pseudostem weevil : : Field sanitation, Dersban (20%EC) or chlorpyrifos (0.05%) at 2.5 ml per litre, Smear psuedostem mud + Sevin 50WP(4 g/l)
    • Leaf eating caterpillar : : Ekalux (25% EC) 2ml/l.
    Disease Management :
    • Bunchy top disease, Kokkan disease : Vector control, Clean cultivation.
    • Sigatoka leaf spot : Field sanitation, 1% Bordeaux mixture, Fytolan 4g/l. .
    • Panama wilt : Bavistin 1.5 – 2 g/l, lime 1 kg/pit. .
    • Bacterial wilt : 5kg bleaching powder per ha in irrigation water, soil drench 4g Fytolan 1.5g Streptocylin in 1litre of water. .
    • Infectious chlorosis : Insect control, field sanitation. .
    Harvesting: Cut gently with a sharp knife, the bunches should not be kept on sand , dehand, grade and pack.
    Yield: 20- 35 t/ha

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    Where are bananas grown?

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    We have available data on banana exports dating back to 2007: it may have changed in the meantime and we urge you to have a look at the official FDA website for updated figures.

    With that said, banana crop distribution generally doesn't change much from year to year and the following list is probably still very accurate.

    What countries do bananas grow in?

    Top banana producing nations - 2007
    (in million metric tons)
    India 21.77
    China 8.04
    Philippines 7.48
    Brazil 7.10
    Ecuador 6.00
    Indonesia 5.46
    Tanzania 3.50
    Costa Rica 2.08
    Thailand 2.00
    Mexico 1.96
    Burundi 1.60
    Guatemala 1.57
    Vietnam 1.36
    Kenya 1.19
    Bangladesh 1.00
    Honduras 0.91
    Egypt 0.88
    Papua New Guinea 0.87
    Cameroon 0.86
    Uganda 0.62
    World total 72.5
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

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    How to Store and Select Bananas

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    Bananas are usually harvested when green. In stores, you can usually find a range of colors from green to yellow, with brown spots. Your choice should be based on when you want to eat the banana: greener ones last more days, while yellow and brown-spotted bananas should be eaten in a few days.

    Bananas should be quite firm, bright, and the peel should not be crushed or cut. Their stems and tips should be intact. The size of the banana does not affect its quality, so just choose the size that fits you best

    Bananas are very fragile and should be stored in a place when they will be protected from concussions. They should be stored at room temperature to allow for the ripening process to complete. Do not store them in the refrigerator when they are green, or this will irreversibly interrupt the ripening process (and it will not revert even if they are kept at room temperature afterwards)

    If you need to speed up the ripening process, you can place the banana in a paper wrap with an apple. While you should not keep green bananas in the fridge, it is actually a good idea to store ripe bananas there. Their peel will become progressively brown, but the pulp will not be affected. To improve the flavor, it is best to keep bananas at room temperature for a while

    If you wish to store bananas for a long time (up to 2 months), it is possible to freeze them. To do this, simply remove the peel and sprinkle some lemon juice over the pulp to prevent discoloration; then wrap them in plastic


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    Bananas Nutrition Facts

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    Bananas, raw

    Refuse: 36% (Skin)
    Scientific Name: Musa X paradisiaca
    NDB No: 09040 (Nutrient values and weights are for edible portion)

    NutrientUnitsValue per
    100 grams
    Number
    of Data
    Points
    Std.
    Error
    Proximates
    Water g 74.91 20 0.286
    Energy kcal 89 0
    Energy kj 371 0
    Protein g 1.09 12 0.022
    Total lipid (fat) g 0.33 19 0.067
    Ash g 0.82 12 0.03
    Carbohydrate, by difference g 22.84 0
    Fiber, total dietary g 2.6 13 0.129
    Sugars, total g 12.23 8 1.034
    Sucrose g 2.39 8 0.546
    Glucose (dextrose) g 4.98 8 0.806
    Fructose g 4.85 8 0.658
    Lactose g 0.00 8 0
    Maltose g 0.01 8 0.014
    Galactose g 0.00 8 0
    Starch g 5.38 8 0.564
    Minerals
    Calcium, Ca mg 5 45 0.047
    Iron, Fe mg 0.26 42 0.001
    Magnesium, Mg mg 27 45 0.475
    Phosphorus, P mg 22 45 0.171
    Potassium, K mg 358 45 1.911
    Sodium, Na mg 1 45 0.395
    Zinc, Zn mg 0.15 45 0.001
    Copper, Cu mg 0.078 45 0.011
    Manganese, Mn mg 0.270 45 0.007
    Fluoride, F mcg 2.2 1
    Selenium, Se mcg 1.0 31 0.289
    Vitamins
    Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid mg 8.7 8 0.434
    Thiamin mg 0.031 12 0.006
    Riboflavin mg 0.073 12 0.008
    Niacin mg 0.665 12 0.002
    Pantothenic acid mg 0.334 12 0.01
    Vitamin B-6 mg 0.367 12 0.01
    Folate, total mcg 20 11 0.472
    Folic acid mcg 0 0
    Folate, food mcg 20 11 0.472
    Folate, DFE mcg_DFE 20 0
    Choline, total mg 9.8 0
    Betaine mg 0.1 1
    Vitamin B-12 mcg 0.00 0
    Vitamin B-12, added mcg 0.00 0
    Vitamin A, IU IU 64 0
    Vitamin A, RAE mcg_RAE 3 0
    Retinol mcg 0 0
    Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) mg 0.10 15 0.054
    Vitamin E, added mg 0.00 0
    Tocopherol, beta mg 0.00 15 0
    Tocopherol, gamma mg 0.02 15 0.015
    Tocopherol, delta mg 0.01 15 0.01
    Vitamin K (phylloquinone) mcg 0.5 6 0.075
    Lipids
    Fatty acids, total saturated g 0.112 0
    4:0 g 0.000 0
    6:0 g 0.000 0
    8:0 g 0.000 0
    10:0 g 0.001 4
    12:0 g 0.002 4
    14:0 g 0.002 4
    16:0 g 0.102 5
    18:0 g 0.005 5
    Fatty acids, total monounsaturated g 0.032 0
    16:1 undifferentiated g 0.010 5
    18:1 undifferentiated g 0.022 5
    20:1 g 0.000 0
    22:1 undifferentiated g 0.000 0
    Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated g 0.073 0
    18:2 undifferentiated g 0.046 5
    18:3 undifferentiated g 0.027 5
    18:4 g 0.000 0
    20:4 undifferentiated g 0.000 0
    20:5 n-3 g 0.000 0
    22:5 n-3 g 0.000 0
    22:6 n-3 g 0.000 0
    Cholesterol mg 0 0
    Phytosterols mg 16 0
    Amino acids
    Tryptophan g 0.009 0
    Threonine g 0.028 0
    Isoleucine g 0.028 0
    Leucine g 0.068 0
    Lysine g 0.050 0
    Methionine g 0.008 0
    Cystine g 0.009 0
    Phenylalanine g 0.049 0
    Tyrosine g 0.009 0
    Valine g 0.047 0
    Arginine g 0.049 0
    Histidine g 0.077 0
    Alanine g 0.040 0
    Aspartic acid g 0.124 0
    Glutamic acid g 0.152 0
    Glycine g 0.038 0
    Proline g 0.028 0
    Serine g 0.040 0
    Other
    Alcohol, ethyl g 0.0 0
    Caffeine mg 0 0
    Theobromine mg 0 0
    Carotene, beta mcg 26 10 2.167
    Carotene, alpha mcg 25 8 4.438
    Cryptoxanthin, beta mcg 0 6 0
    Lycopene mcg 0 6 0
    Lutein + zeaxanthin mcg 22 6 2.52

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