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Chilli

CHILLI (Capsicum annuum)

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PlantCharacteristics

It is a short-lived perennial herb but is cultivated as an annual herb. The leaves are oblong and glabrous. The flowers are solitary, rarely in pairs, pure white to bluish white, very rarely violet in colour. The berries are green, maturing into yellow, orange to red grading into brown or purple, pendent, rarely erect, very variable in size (up to 20 cm long and 10 cm in dia.), shape and pungency and sometimes lobed. The seeds are white or cream to yellow, thin, almost circular, having long placental connections.

Varieties

High yielding varieties: Jwalasakhi, Jwalamukhi, Jwala, Pant C-1, K-2
Bacterial wilt resistant varieties: Manjari, Ujwala, Anugraha

SeedsAndCultivation

Seed rate: 1.0 kg/ha
Raising seedlings
Chilli is a transplanted crop. Seeds are sown in the nursery and one-month-old seedlings are transplanted to the main field. For sowing the seeds, raised seed-beds of 90 to 100 cm width and of convenient length are prepared to which well decomposed organic matter has been incorporated. After sowing the seeds, mulch with green leaves and irrigate with a rose-can daily in the morning. Remove the mulch immediately after germination of the seeds. Restrict irrigation one week before transplanting and irrigate heavily on the previous day of transplanting.
Time of planting
For rainfed crop, transplant the seedlings during May-June before the onset of southwest monsoon. Planting can also be done during September-October for irrigated crop.
Land preparation and transplanting
Land is prepared to a fine tilth by thorough ploughing / digging. Well rotten organic manure is incorporated in the soil and seedlings are transplanted in shallow trenches / pits during May or on ridges / level lands during rainy season. Transplanted seedlings may also be given temporary shade for three to four days during summer. 
Spacing
Transplant less spreading varieties like Swetha and Surya at 60 x 60 cm. For spreading varieties Haritha and Neelima, provide wider spacing of 75-90 x 60 cm.

WaterManagement

Irrigate at three or four days interval during summer.

NutrientManagement

Apply well rotten FYM / compost @ 20-25 t/ha at the time of land preparation and mix well with the soil.
A fertilizer dose of 75:40:25 kg N:P2O5: K2O / ha may be given. Half the dose of nitrogen, full phosphorus and half of potash may be applied as basal dose before transplanting. One fourth of nitrogen and half of potash may be applied 20-30 days after planting. The remaining quantities may be applied two months after planting.
Application of 75:25:25 kg N:P2O5:K2O / ha is optimum for getting maximum yield of fruits for the variety Swetha in the reclaimed alluvial soils of Kuttanad. However, the economic optimum dose was found to be 60:20:25 kg of N:P2O5:K2O / ha.

WeedManagement

Weeding followed by fertilizer application and earthing up may be done one and two months after transplanting. 
Stake the plants if necessary.

PestManagement

Spray quinalphos 0.025% for control of mealy bugs and lace wings. Dimethoate at 0.05% is effective for controlling mites, aphids and other sucking insects.

DiseaseManagement

For avoiding damping off of the seedlings in the nursery, sow the seeds as thin as possible in raised beds prepared in the open area during summer months. Spray nursery and main field with 1% Bordeaux mixture at monthly intervals during rainy season. Uproot and destroy the plants affected by bacterial wilt and mosaic.
Cultivate resistant varieties like Manjari, Ujwala and Anugraha in bacterial wilt prone areas.

Harvesting

Fruits can be harvested from 75 days after transplanting. For dry chilly, fully ripe pods have to be harvested and dried in sun.For green chilly, fully matured green fruits have to be harvested.

AverageYield

Green chilli yield is about 8-10 tonnes/ha.
Dry chilli yield would be 1800 -2200 kg/ha.

 


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