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Cabbage

Organic Cultivation of Cabbage

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Varieties

Hills       : Quisto
Plains    : Golden Acre, Maha Rani

Soil

It is commonly cultivated in cool moist climate. It is grown as a winter crop in plains. It is grown in varied types of soils ranging from sandy loam to clay. It requires a pH ranging from 5.5 to 6.5 for higher production.

Season of sowing

Hills       : January - February, July - August, September- October
Plains    : August - November

Seed rate : 650 g/ha

Nursery

100 sq mt nursery area/ha is required. Raised beds of 15 cm height, 1m breadth and convenient length are formed. 2 kg FYM, 200g vermicompost, 40g VAM, 200g each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria should be applied per sq mt. Sow the seeds at 10 cm spacing between rows in raised seed beds. Transplant 40 -45 days old seedlings at a spacing of 45 cm. Avoid land infected with 'club root disease'.

Seed treatment

  • Seed treatment with cow pat pit @ 3 g in 1 litre of water for 24 hours
  • Seed treatment with 5% Trichoderma viride
  • Seedling root dip with 5% Pseudomonas fluorescens before transplanting for the management of club root disease

Preparation of field

Bring the soil to a fine tilth. Pits should be taken up at a spacing of 40 cm either way in hills. Ridges and furrows are formed at 45 cm apart in plains.

Spacing

Hills       :  40 x 40 cm
Plains    :  45 x 30 cm

Irrigation

Provide continuous supply of moisture.

Application of fertilizers

  • Green manuring with lupin 60 days before planting
  • Sprinkling of horn manure to the soil at the time of land preparation @ 75 g/ha by dissolving it in 40 litres of water
  • Application of well decomposed farm yard manure @ 50 t/ha at the time of land preparation
  • Application of biodynamic compost @ 5 t/ha at the time of land preparation
  • Application of vermicompost @ 5 t/ha at the time of land preparation
  • Application of neem cake @ 1250 kg/ha at the time of land preparation
  • Application of biofertilizers, Azospirillum and Phsophobacteria @ 25 kg each/ha at the time of land preparation
  • Spraying cow pat pit @ 5 kg/ha in 100 litres of water on 45th, 60th and 75th day after planting

After cultivation

Deep hoeing should be avoided, as the cabbage roots are surface feeders.

Growth regulators

  • Foliar spraying of panchagavya @ 3 per cent at 10 days interval from 1st month after planting
  • Spraying 10% vermiwash 5 times at 15 days interval from one month after planting
  • Foliar spray of horn silica @ 2.5 g/ha in 50 litres of water on 65th day after planting to increase the yield and quality of cabbage head

Plant protection
Pests
Cut worms

  • Install light trap during summer to attract adult moths
  • Install sprinkler irrigation system and irrigate the field in day time to expose the larvae for predation by birds
  • Use of pyrethrum bait prepared out of pyrethrum flowers, wheat bran and jaggery (2:1:1)

Aphids

  • Spray neem oil 3 %
  • Spraying of 10% nettle leaf extract on 45th, 60th and 75th day after planting

Diamond backmoth

  • Grow mustard as intercrop at 20:1 ratio to attract diamond back moths for oviposition
  • Install pheromone traps @ 12 numbers/ha
  • Spray Bacillus thuringiensis @ 2 g/lit at primordial stage
  • Spray NSKE 5 % after primordial stage
  • Release parasite Diadegma semiclausum @ 50,000/ha, 60 days after planting
  • Foliar spraying of 10% garlic - chilli extract 3 times on 45th, 60th and 75th day after planting

Diseases
Club root

  • Select disease free seeds/seedlings
  • Seed treatment @ 10 g/ kg of seeds or soil application @2.5 kg/ha or seedling dip in solution of 5g/lit withPseudomonas fluorescens
  • Follow crop rotation
  • Crucifers should be avoided for three years
  • Application of dolomite @ 10 kg/ha should be done to increase the pH of the soil. This creates unfavourable condition for the pathogen

Leaf spot

  • Foliar spray of 5 % Manchurian tea filtrate 3 times at one month interval from one month after sowing/planting
  • Foliar spray of 3% Dasagavya at 10 days interval from 1st month after planting
  • Seeds should be soaked in hot water (50oC) for 30 minutes, dried and then sown.

Leaf Blight

Spraying Agni Hotra ash (200 g Agni Hotra ash soaked in 1 liter cow urine for 15 days and diluted in 10 liters of water before spraying) 3 times at one month interval from one month after sowing/planting.

Black rot

  • Dip the seeds in 100 ppm Streptocycline for 30 minutes
  • Two sprays with Streptomycin 100 ppm after planting and at head formation

Soil borne diseases

  • Application of Trichoderma viride @ 5 kg/ha at the time of land preparation
  • Application of Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 5 kg/ha at the time of land preparation

Yield

Hills      : 70 - 80 t/ha in 150 days
Plains   : 25 - 35 t/ha in 120 days

 


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CABBAGE (assica oleracea var. capitata)

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PlantCharacteristics

Cabbage is a hardy cool season annual vegetable. It behaves like a biennial when grown for seed production. 'Head' consisting of thick leaves overlapping tightly on growing bud is the economic part. Glucoside 'sinigrin' is the flavour principle in Cabbage. It belongs to the family assicaceae.

Varieties

September, Pusa Drum Head, Golden Acre, Kaveri, Ganga, Sri Ganesh and Pride of India.

SeedsAndCultivation

Cabbage can be grown in high ranges during winter season. Well-drained sandy loam to clay loam soil is suited for this crop. Since it is a cool season crop, sowing is done from August-November. Seed rate is 500-750 g/ha. Seeds are to be sown in nursery beds. Three to five weeks old seedlings are used for transplanting. Field is prepared by three or four ploughings. Seedlings are transplanted at a spacing of 45 x 45 cm.

WaterManagement

A continuous supply of moisture is necessary for proper development of heads.

NutrientManagement

Apply 25 t/ha FYM or compost. Fertilizer dose is N:P2O5:K2O 150:100:125 kg/ha. Apply full dose of P2O5 and half dose of N and K2O before transplanting. Apply remaining half dose one month after transplanting.

WeedManagement

Very shallow hoeing should be done to remove weeds and to make the soil better aerated. In order to produce large heads, earth up plants one month after transplanting.

PestManagement

White butterfly, rootfly and aphids are major pests of cabbage. Spraying malathion at 0.1 per cent will control the damage. Diamond back moth is another major pest. IPM involving a trap crop, release of a parasitoid and application of neem seed kernel extract is recommended by IIHR against this pest. Bold seeded Indian mustard is the recommended trap crop. Spraying 4 per cent neem seed kernel extract once every three weeks is recommended. The parasitoid, Diadegma semiclausum may be released 10-15 days before or after neem seed kernel extract spraying and the number of releases have to be decided based on the degree of infestation.

DiseaseManagement

Black rot, Club rot, Black leg and cabbage yellows are the common diseases. Soaking the seeds in water at 50oC for 25-30 minutes will kill the disease causing organisms. Crop rotation involving a non-cruciferous vegetable, ensuring good drainage, removal and destruction of affected plants etc. are also suggested.

Harvesting

The heads are harvested at full maturity and when they are firm from December to April in the plains and in June-July in Hills (summer crop). The entire plant is uprooted and the heads separated.

AverageYield

20-25 tons/ha..

 


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