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Carrot

Organic cultivation of Carrot

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Varieties

Hills: Ooty-1, Early Nantes and New Koroda
Plains: India Gold, Pusa Kesar and Half Long Danvers

Soil

Carrot is a cool season crop and when grown at 15°C to 20°C will develop a good colour. The carrot crop needs deep loose loamy soil. It requires a pH ranging from 6.0 to 7.0 for higher production.

Season

Hills: At elevation above 1500 metres, Carrot can be grown throughout the year under assured irrigation. At elevations between 1000 - 1500 metres, Carrot can be grown in July - February. 
Plains: August.

Seed rate

4 kg/ha

Spacing

Mark the rows with spacing of 25 - 30 cm apart. Sow the seeds mixed with sand (one part of seed with 4 parts of sand).

Thinning

Hills: 10 cm between plants
Plains: 5 cm between plants

Preparation of field

Hills: Prepare the land to a fine tilth and form raised beds of 15 cm height, one metre breadth and convenient length.
Plains: Two ploughings are given and ridges and furrows are formed at 30 cm spacing.

Seed treatment

  1. Seed treatment with cow pat pit @ 3 g in 1 litre of water for 24 hours
  2. Seed treatment with 5% Trichoderma viride
  3. Seedling root dip with 5% Pseudomonas fluorescens before transplanting

Irrigation

Irrigation should be given once in five days. During drought period, after giving irrigation in the evening, beds should be covered with wet gunny bags. This prevent excessive water loss during sunny days. Germination of the seeds is also improved.

Application of fertilizers

  1. Green manuring with lupin 60 days before planting
  2. Sprinkling horn manure to the soil at the time of land preparation @ 75g/ha by dissolving it in 40 litres of water
  3. Application of well decomposed farm yard manure @ 50 t/ha at the time of land preparation
  4. Application of biodynamic compost @ 5 t/ha at the time of land preparation
  5. Application of vermicompost @ 5 t/ha at the time of land preparation
  6. Application of neem cake @ 1250 kg/ha at the time of land preparation
  7. Application of biofertilizers, Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria @ 25 kg each/ha at the time of land preparation
  8. Spraying cow pat pit @ 5 kg/ha in 100 litres of water on 45th, 60th and 75th day after planting

After cultivation

First weeding is to be done on 15th day. Thinning and earthing up should be given on 30th day.

Growth regulators

  1. Foliar spraying of panchagavya @ 3 per cent at 10 days interval from 1st month after sowing
  2. Spraying 10% vermiwash 5 times at 15 days interval from one month after sowing
  3. Foliar spray of horn silica @ 2.5 g/ha in 50 litres of water on 65th day after sowing to increase the yield and quality of the carrot roots

Plant protection
Pests

Carrot is not much affected by pests.

Root knot nematode

  1. Application of neem cake @ 1 ton/haat the time of sowing to control root knot nematode, Meloidogyne spp
  2. Growing carrot once in 3 years by following crop rotation
  3. Growing marigold once in 2 years
  4. Aplication of Paecilomyces lilacinus @ 10 kg/ha before sowing seeds

Diseases
Leaf spot

  1. Foliar spray of 5% Manchurian tea filtrates 3 times at one month interval from one month after sowing/planting.
  2. Foliar spray of 3% Dasagavya at 10 days interval from 1st month after planting.

Soil borne diseases

  1. Application of Trichoderma viride @ 5 kg/ha at the time of land preparation.
  2. Application of Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 5 kg/ha at the time of land preparation.

Yield

25 - 30 t/ha in 100 - 120 days.

 


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CARROT (Daucus carota)

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PlantCharacteristics

Carrot belongs to the family Umbelliferae. It is a cool season root crop. It is rich in iron and vitamins like Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Ascorbic acid and Vitamin A.

Varieties

Pusa Kesar, Nantes, Pusa Meghali.

 

SeedsAndCultivation


Carrot can be grown in high ranges from August to January. Well-drained sandy loam soil is best suited for the crop.

Seed rate is 5-6 kg/ha. It is usually sown on ridges to facilitate good root production. Ridges of about 20 cm height are made 45 cm apart and seeds sown 10 cm apart on the rows. The seed is mixed with fine sand and sown in rows by hand and covered with soil to make it firm around it.
Uproot excess seedlings (thinning) three weeks after sowing leaving a plant to plant spacing of 10 cm to facilitate better tuber growth.

WaterManagement

It is necessary that enough soil moisture is available to help uniform seed germination and growth of plant. Because of the deep root forming nature, the crop requires continuous moisture in the soil.

NutrientManagement

Apply 25 t/ha FYM before sowing and a fertilizer dose of 37.5 kg N, 62.5 kg P2O5 and 50 kg K2O / ha as basal. Topdressing with 37.5 kg N / ha may be done one month after sowing.

WeedManagement


Weeding should be done at regular intervals to keep down the weeds. Shallow hoeing is necessary to facilitate root growth. When the root starts growing, earthing up should be done.

PestManagement

Carrot fly, wireworm and aphids are the major pests causing damage to the crop. For control, soil treatment with insecticides such as Bromophos or Diazinon is recommended.

DiseaseManagement

Cercospora leaf blight, Bacterial blight and softrot are the major diseases. For control of fungal diseases proper drainage should be provided. Hot water treatment of seeds at 50oCfor 15 minutes is also suggested as a prophylactic measure. Spraying of Indofil M-45 or Copper oxychloride @ 2.5 g per litre of water is also effective.

Harvesting

Harvesting is done 70-85 days after sowing.Light irrigation is provided just before harvest and the tubers are pulled out of soil without damage.

AverageYield

 

20-25 tons per hectare.

 


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