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Paddy

Pests of Rice

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Green leafhopper
Management

  • Use resistant varieties like IR 50, CR 1009, Co 46, PTB 2 and PTB 18.
  • Nursery should not be raised near the lamp posts
  • Apply neem cake @ 12.5 kg/20 cent nursery as basal dose
  • Maintain the water level at 2.5 cm for 3 days

Brown plant leafhopper (Nilaparvata lugens)
Management

  • Use resistant varieties like Aruna, Karnataka, Karthika, Krishnaveni, Makon,
  • Abhey, Asha, Divya, Py 3, Co 42, Ptb 33 and Ptb 21.
  • Avoid close planting and provide 30 cm rogue spacing at every 2.5 m to reduce the pest incidence.
  • Control irrigation by intermittent draining
  • Set up light traps to monitor pest population and to control
  • Release of natural enemies like Lycosa pseudoannulataCyrtorhinus lividipennis
  • Drain the water before the use of insecticides and direct the spray towards the base of the plants
  • Spray neem seed kernel extract 5% (25 kg/ha) (or) neem oil 2% (10 l/ha)

White backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera)
Management

  • Release of egg parasitoid, Anagrus sp. and adults and nymphs of the dryinid
  • Pachygonatopus sp. Predators recorded on the insect are Coccinella arcuata, Cyrtorrhinus lividipennis, Tytthus parviceps

Mealybug (Brevennia rehi)
Management

  • The mealy bug is parasitised by Adelencyrtus sp., Dolihoceros sp., Gyranusa sp., Parasyrphophagus sp.,Xanthoencyrtus sp and predated upon by Gitonides perspicax, Leucopis luteicomis, Scymnus sp., Pullus sp.,Anatrichus pygmaeusMepachymerus ensifer.
  • Remove the grasses from the bunds and trim the bunds during the main field preparation before transplanting.
  • Remove and destroy the affected plants.

Rice black bug (Scotinophora lurida and S. coarctata)
Management

  • Keep the field free from weeds and grasses
  • Drain the excess water from the field
  • Set up light trap during the full moon period to attract large number of bugs and kill
  • Conserve the predators viz., spiders, coccinellids and wasps to check the pest
  • Ducks can be allowed in the field to pick up the bugs

Rice earhead bug (Leptocorisa acuta)
Botanical powder formulations

  • Neem seed kernel extract 5%
  • Notchi leaf powder extract 5%
  • Ipomoea leaf powder extract 5%
  • Prosopis leaf powder extract 5%

Paddy stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas)
Management

  • Grow resistant varieties like Ratna, Jaya, TKM 6, IR 20 and IR 26
  • Clip the tip of seedlings before transplanting to eliminate egg masses
  • Avoid close planting and continuous water stagnation at early stages
  • Collect and destroy the egg masses
  • Pull out and destroy the affected tillers
  • Set up light traps to attract and kill the moths
  • Harvest the crop upto the ground level and disturb the stubbles with plough immediately after the harvest
  • Release the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma japonicum on 30 and 37 DAT twice @ 5 ml/ha/release followed by monocrotophos 36 SL spray thrice @ 1000 ml/ha on 58, 65 and 72 DAT reduce the damage.
  • Apply Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki and neem seed kernel extract in the combination of 2.5 kg/ml and 1% to reduce the oviposition by the stemborer.

Gall midge (Orseolia oryzae)
Management

  • Encourage early planting of the crop to escape from infestation
  • Use resistant varieties like MDU-3, Shakthi, Vikram, Sureka
  • Harvest the crop and plough immediately
  • Remove the alternate host and adjust the time of planting
  • Use quick growing varieties
  • Set up light trap @ 1 / ha as a monitoring device
  • Infra red light trap attracts gall midge effectively
  • Release larval parasitoid: Platygaster oryzae through parasitized galls @ 1 per 10 m2 in the main field at 10 DAT.
  • The carabid beetle, Ophionia indica is an effective predator.
  • Conserve the spider predators like Tetragnatha and Argiope catenulata in rice ecosystem to feed on the adult midge.

Swarming caterpillar (Spodoptera mauritia)
Management

  • Release larval parasitoids Apanteles ruficrusMeteorus sp., Charops bicolor,
  • C. dominans, Drino unisetosa, Pseudoperichaeta orientalisStrobliomyia aegyptia, Pseudogonia cinerascens, Tachinia fallan, Cuphocera varia, Sturmia inconspicua, Chelonus sp., Euplectrus euplexiaeE. spodopterae.
  • Pupa by Netelia sp., Actia sp., Drino sp. and Isomera cinerascensHexamermis sp. a parasitic nematode parasitises the larva.
  • The vertebrate predators of the larvae are Corvus splendens, C. macrorhynchus, Bubalcus coromandus, Ardeela grayi, Amaurovius phoenicocurus, Acridotheres tristis.
  • Flood the nursery to expose the hiding larvae to the surface and thus birds pick
  • them up.
  • Kerosenate the water while irrigation to suffocate and kill the larvae.
  • Allow the ducks into the field to feed on the larvae.

Rice case worm (Nymphula depunctalis)
Management

  • Release larval parasitoids viz., Elasmus sp., Apanteles sp., Bracon sp., Hormiues sp.
  • Release pupal parasitoids viz., Pediobius sp., Apsilops sp., Eupteromalus parnarae
  • Drain water from the field
  • Dislodge the cases by running a rope over the young crop

Leaf folder (or) leaf roller (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis)
Management

  • Use resistant varieties like TNAU LFR 831311, Cauveri, Akashi, TKM-6, IET 7511, IET 9225 and IET 9797.
  • Clipping of affected leaves reduces the pest population.
  • Keep the bunds clean by trimming them and remove the grassy weeds.
  • Avoid use of excessive nitrogenous fertilizer.
  • Set up light traps to attack and kill the moths.
  • Release Trichogramma chilonis on 37, 44 and 51 DAT thrice followed by three sprays of monocrotophos 36 SL @ 1000 ml/ha on 58, 65 and 72 DAT.
  • Spray neem seed kernel extract 5% @ 25 kg .

Grasshopper (Hieroglyphus banian)
Management

  • Expose the eggs to be picked up by birds after ploughing and trim the bunds
  • Bio-control agents such as Cacallus spp., Barycomus spp. and Seelio spp., which are egg parasites should be encouraged.

Short horned grasshopper (Oxya nitidula)
Management

  • Expose the eggs during summer ploughing and they will be picked up by birds.

Spiny beetle / Rice hispa (Dicladispa armigera)
Management

  • The leaf tips containing blotch mines should be plucked and destroyed
  • Manual collection and killing of beetles with hand nets may help in reducing the population of the pest.

Integrated Pest Management in Rice
A. Cultural method

  • Remove / destroy stubbles after harvest and keep the field free from weeds.
  • Trim and plaster the bunds of rice field to expose the eggs of grasshoppers and to eliminate the bugs breeding in grasses.
  • Form the buds narrow and short to reduce the damage by rodents.
  • Use resistant varieties wherever available.
  • Provide effective drainage wherever there is problem of BPH.
  • Clip the tip of seedling before transplanting to prevent the carry over of egg masses of rice yellow stem borer from nursery to mainfield.
  • Organise synchronized planting wherever possible.
  • Leave 30 cm rogue space at every 2.5 m to reduce damage by BPH and rodents.
  • Avoid use of excessive nitrogenous fertilizers.
  • Use irrigation water judiciously (Alternative webbing x drying reduce BPH and case worm).
  • Remove the egg masses of stem borer in the mainfield.

B. Mechanical methods

  • Dig out the rat burrows and destroy the rats and young ones at the beginning of the season.
  • Set up light traps to monitor and control pests.
  • Set up-bow traps to kill rodents.

C. Biological methods

  • Release Trichogramma japonicum on 30 and 37 DAT twice 5 ml/ha/release against stem borer.
  • Release Trichogramma chilonis on 37, 44 and 51 DAT (Thrice) @ 5 ml/ha/release against leaf folder.
  • Release of Platygaster oryzae parasitized galls @ 1 per 10 m2 in the mainfield on, 10 DAT against gall midge.
  • Set up owl perches to reduce rat damage.

D. Plant products

  • Spray neem seed kernel extract 5% (25 kg/ha), neem oil 3% (15 lit/ha) to control brown planthopper.
  • Spray botanical powder formulation viz., NSKE, Vitex negundo (Notchi), Prosopis juliflora and Ipomoea carnealeaf extract 5% to control earhead bug and black bug.

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Diseases of Rice

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Nursery disease
Blast (Pyricularia Oryzae Cavara)

Symptoms

  • Disease can infect paddy at all growth stages and all aerial parts of plant (Leaf, neck and node).
  • Among the three leaf and neck infections are more severe.
  • Small specks originate on leaves - subsequently enlarge into spindle shaped Spots(0.5 to 1.5cm length, 0.3 to 0.5cm width) with ashy center.
  • Several spots coalesce to form big irregular patches
  • Unde severe leads to
  • lodging of crop (after ear emergence)

Neck Blast

  • Neck region develops a black color and shriveled completely / Partially grain set inhibited, panicle breaks at the neck and hangs.

Internode Blast

Control

  • Use of tolerant varieties (Penna, Pinakini, Tikkana, Sreeranga, Simphapuri, Palghuna, Swarnamukhi, Swathi, Prabhat, IR - 64, Jaya, IR - 36, MTU 9992, MTU 1005, MTU 7414).
  • Burning of straw and stubbles after harvest.

Bacterial Leaf Blight

Symptoms

  • Seedling wilt or kresek
  • Water-soaked to yellowish stripes on leaf blades or starting at leaf tips then later increase in length and width with a wavy margin.
  • Appearance of bacterial ooze that looks like a milky or opaque dewdrop on young lesions early in the morning.
  • Lesions turn yellow to white as the disease advances.
  • Green water-soaked layer along the cut portion or leaf tip of leaves as early symptom.

Control

  • Secure disease free seed
  • Grow nurseries preferably in isolated upland conditions
  • Drain the field (except at flowering stage of the crop)
  • Destruction of wild collateral hosts
  • Avoid flow of water from affected fields
  • Grow tolerant varities (Swarna, Ajaya, Deepti, Badva mashuri, MTU-9992).

Sheath Rot (Sarocladium oryzae)

Symptoms

  • Irregular spots or lesions, with dark reddish brown margins and gray center
  • Discoloration in the flag leaf sheath
  • Lesions enlarge and often coalesce and may cover the entire leaf sheath
  • Severe infection causes entire or parts of young panicles to remain within the sheath
  • Unemerged panicles rot and florets turn red-brown to dark brown
  • Whitish powdery growth inside the affected sheaths and young panicles
  • Infected panicles sterile, shrivelled, or with partially filled grain

Control

  • Destruction of the infected plant debris by burning.

Brown Spot ( Helminthosporium oryzae)
Symptoms

  • Occur in nursery as well as main crop
  • Causes blight of seedlings
  • Leaf spotting is very common
  • Isolated brown, round to oval (resemble sesame seed)
  • Spots measures 0.5 to 2.0mm in breadth - coalasee to form large pathces.
  • Seed also infected (black or brown spots on glumes) (spots are covered by olivaceous velvety growth)
  • Infection also occur on panicle neck with brown colour appearance
  • 50% yield reduction in severe cases

Control

  • The fungus is seed transmitted, a hot water seed treatment (53-54°C) for 10-12 minutes.

False Smut (Ustilaginoidea viridis)

Symptoms

  • Individual rice grain transformed into a mass of yellow fruiting bodies
  • growth of velvety spores that enclose floral parts
  • immature spores slightly flattened, smooth, yellow, and covered by a membrane
  • growth of spores result to broken membrane
  • mature spores orange and turn yellowish green or greenish black
  • only few grains in a panicle are usually infected and the rest are normal

Control

  • Destruction of straw and stubble.

Tungro Virus (Rice Tungro Virus)

Symptoms

  • Plants affected by tungro exhibit stunting and reduced tillering. Their leaves become yellow or orange-yellow, may also have rust-colored spots.
  • discoloration begins from leaf tip and extends down to the blade or the lower leaf portion.
  • delayed flowering, - panicles small and not completely exserted.
  • most panicles sterile or partially filled grains.

Control

  • Grow tolerant varieties like MTU 9992, MTU 1002, MTU 1003, MTU 1005, Surekha, Vikramarya, Bharani, IR 36 etc.,
  • In epidemic areas follow rotation with pulses or oil seeds.

Leaf streak (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola)

  • Initially, small, dark-green and water-soaked streaks on interveins from tillering to booting stage.

Control

  • Proper, planting spacing, the use of resistant varieties, and hot water treated seeds.

 


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Rice Seeds

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Seed is an important and basic input for achieving higher crop yield and increasing a country's agricultural economy. Thus it is very important to maintain seed quality by understanding the right mechanism. Seed markets are generally built around hybrid varieties, which do not reproduce and so force farmers to purchase new seeds every season. Rice, however, is a self-pollinating crop, making hybrid rice seed production costly and difficult, and nearly all rice in Asia is still grown with farmer-saved seeds.

We can study this category under the following heads :

Different methods of Seeding

Methods of Nursery raising

Selection of Seeds

Sowing of Seeds


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Rice Cropping Pattern in India

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Rice cropping pattern in India vary widely from region to region and to a lesser extent from one year to another year depending on a wide range of soil and climatic conditions.

Some of the rice based cropping patterns being followed in the country are as follows :

  • Rice-Rice-Rice
  • Rice-Rice-Cereals (other than rice)
  • Rice-Rice-Pulses
  • Rice-Groundnut
  • Rice-Wheat
  • Rice-Wheat-Pulses
  • Rice-Toria-Wheat
  • Rice-Fish farming system

Rice-Rice-Rice
This is most suitable for areas having high rainfall and assured irrigation facilities in summer months, particularly, in soils which have high water holding capacity and low rate of infiltration. In some canal irrigated areas of Tamil Nadu, a cropping pattern of 300% intensity is followed. In such areas three crops of rice are grown in a year.

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Methods of Rice Cultivation in India

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The systems of rice cultivation in various rice-growing areas of the country are largely dependent upon the rice-growing conditions prevalent in the respective regions. The method of cultivation of rice in a particular region depends largely on factors such as situation of land, type of soils, irrigation facilities, availability of labourers intensity and distribution of rainfalls. The principal systems followed in India are :

1. Dry or Semi-Dry Upland Cultivation

2. Wet or Lowland cultivation

 

1. Dry or Semi-Dry Upland Cultivation

The dry and semi-dry systems of cultivation are mainly confined to tracts which depend on rains and do not have supplementary irrigation facilities. 

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