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Wheat

Wheat Cultivation

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Wheat cultivation in India traditionally been dominated by the northern region of India. The northern states of Punjab and Haryana Plains in India have been prolific wheat producers. While this cereal grass has been studied carefully in the past, recent years of painstaking research by India's finest scientific talent has paid off with the development of distinctly superior varieties of Durum Wheat.

This hard wheat is cultivated in clayey soil and is highly sought after for its physical characteristics. Its high gluten strength and uniform golden colour makes it ideal for bread making and pasta preparation unlike the softer commercially high yielding wheat, which lacks the strength and consistency of durum. Today, India is exporting sufficient quantities of all types of wheat and extensive research efforts are underway for improving its cereals and grain output in the years to come.Wheat cultivation has traditionally been dominated by the northern region of India. The northern states of Punjab and Haryana Plains in India have been prolific wheat producers. While this cereal grass has been studied carefully in the past, recent years of painstaking research by India's finest scientific talent has paid off with the development of distinctly superior varieties of Durum Wheat.With a production reaching ten times in past five years, India is today the second largest wheat producer in the whole world. Various studies and researches show that wheat and wheat flour play an increasingly important role in the management of India’s food economy.

 


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Wheat Types

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  • Hard Red Winter Wheat: It produces good quality flour used primarily in making bread, burgers, biscuits, etc. It has a high protein content of 10-14%, because of which it has a high amount of gluten in it
  • Soft Wheat: Products like cakes, doughnuts, cookies, pastries, etc. are best made with soft wheat as it does not require the same amount of leavening as yeast bread. It contains about 6-10% protein in it
  • Durum: Durum has a very hard texture and has a high protein and gluten content in it. It contains semolina, a course, golden amber product, which, when mixed with water, forms a dough. It's this dough that is largely used in making pasta products like noodles, spaghetti, etc.
  • White Wheat: It has a soft texture and is used in making cereals, cakes, biscuits, etc.


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History of Wheat

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Wheat's beginnings can be traced to a clan of wild grasses called Triticeae, the seeds of which had a flavor that was pleasing to primitive people. Triticeae included wheat, barley, rye, their wild relatives, and a number of important wild grasses. The Fertile Crescent, at the core of western Asia and northern Africa, is the center of origin and earlydiversification of this clan. Wild einkorn and emmer, which have been known for roughly 75,000 years, are credited as wheat's earliest ancestors. The ripple effect of these grains has been immense, since wheat is the most widely produced and consumed cereal grain in the world.

Through the archeological evidence left by nomadic humans in west Asia, researchers have learned that humans adapted from hunting animals to also gathering seeds for food. Periods of glaciers no doubt inspired this move by reducing available game. The early gatherers were also the first millers and selected grains that could be most easily released from their glumes or husks and prepared. People parched, simmered, and ground these grains and prepared flat cakes. Thus, using grains as food changed the way early ancestors lived their daily lives, in addition to providing basic sustenance. The evolution of agriculture and cultivating seeds for harvest (which occurred about 9,000 to 10,000 years ago) changed not only the available food supply but how people moved about. Human beings' ability to process (mill), store, cultivate, and trade grain marked the beginnings of civilization.



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