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Groundnut

GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogaea)

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PlantCharacteristics


Groundnut appear to have originated in Brazil in South America. The crop belongs to the family Leguminoseae. It is an annual growing to a height of 30-60 cm with angular hairy stem which has erect or spreading branches.It has deep taproot system with root nodules.Leaves occur alternate, one at each node. Leaves are pinnate with two pairs of ovate leaflets.The flowers are borne at leaf axils. Petals yellow in colour. Eight to ten stamens form a monadelphous bundle. Flowers are self-pollinated. After pollination perianth withers and at the base of the ovary a meristematic region grows into a stalk-like peg.The peg pushes the ovary into the soil. The fruit is an indehiscent pod containing 3-5 seeds. 
Groundnut can be cultivated as a floor crop in coconut gardens, as an intercrop with tapioca and as a catch crop after second crop paddy with irrigation. The crop is grown best in sandy loam and loam soils.

Season

Rainfed: May-June to September-October
Irrigated: January to May

Varieties

 

Duration (days)

TMV-2 (bunch type)

110

TMV-7 (bunch type)

110

TG-3 (bunch type)

100-110

TG-14 (bunch type)

105-115

Spanish Improved

100-110

Sneha (bunch type)

Early

Snigtha (bunch type)

Early

Note: TG-3, TMV-2 and TMV-7 are recommended as intercrops in coconut gardens.

SeedsAndCultivation


Seeds and sowing

Pure crop

100kg kernels/ha

Intercrop in coconut

80kg kernels/ha

Intercrop in tapioca

40-50kg kernels/ha

Plough the field three or four times into a fine tilth. Sow the seeds by dibbling in ploughed furrows at a spacing of 15 x 15 cm. For seed treatment the rhizobial culture is recommended.

WaterManagement



Irrigation and interculture

Irrigate the crop once in 7 days. Weed the crop 10-15 days after germination of seed by light hoeing. Give another light hoeing or raking at the time of application of lime. Do not disturb the soil after 45 days of sowing.

NutrientManagement

  • Cattle manure or compost 2 t/ha
  • Lime 1-1.5 t/ha
  • Fertilizers N:P2O5:K2O 10:75:75 kg/ha
    Apply entire quantity of cattle manure or compost and recommended quantity of fertilizers as basal dressing and incorporate well into the soil. Apply lime at the time of flowering of the crop and mix with the soil by light hoeing or raking.

WeedManagement


The crop is generally grown as a rainfed crop. If dry spell occurs one irrigation should be given at pod development stage.

PestManagement

Red hairy caterpillar, termites and leaf miners are the major pests of groundnut. Against leaf miner apply any of the organophosphorus insecticides with contact action. Spraying carbaryl 0.15% controls red hairy caterpillars. Against ants / earwigs / termites damaging the pods, apply carbaryl 10% DP in soil at the time of seeding.

DiseaseManagement


Tikka leaf spot disease infects both the rainfed and irrigated crops. Prophylactic spraying with Bordeaux mixture 1% before flowering will control the disease.

Harvesting

The crop will be ready for harvest when the leaves start yellowing and begin to dry up. Development of brown colour inside the pods also indicates maturity of the crop.

Processing

Leave the harvested crop in small heaps two or three days for curing. After curing detach the pods either by hand or using groundnut plucker.

AverageYield


Bunch type : 1.5-2.0 tons of pods per hectare
Spreading type : 2-3 tons of pods per hectare

 


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