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Mushroom Cultivation

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Mushroom culture is a way for getting much income with less work.  Mushrooms were generally grown on the wet wood and ground.  It’s Scientific name is ‘Morchilla esculenta’.  It is nutritious and very tasty.  There are many types of mushroom occur in our surroundings.  That is edible mushroom, poisonal mushroom, medicinal mushroom, narcotic mushroom etc.  In monsoon season there are many type of mushroom occur in surroundings and fields known as “Pavakoon, Arikoon, Perumkoon, Marakoon” etc. in Malayalam.  In a time it was very important in the group of edible mushroom.  But these are disappear in year by year.  To day we develop the technology or culturing the edible mushrooms vaiykoal koon (hay mushroom), chippy koon (asyter mushroom), palkoon (milk mushroom) etc.  Mushrooms were available in the market at the price of Rs. 200 and above.

Ganodarma, fellinus etc. are very important in medicinal mushrooms.  The Ganodarma mushrooms are known as “king of barbs”.  Every year India will get more than 100 crore Rs. through this business one kilograms of dried ganodarma have 1 Lack Rupees in international market.  One gram of ganodarma powder have 300 Rupees in India.  The mecima, poly porous occur in lack fruit tree that include in felliness group have very medicinal value.

Do you like to do this mashroom culture for this you have to spend only a little time we can start this mushroom culture in a shead or in a small room.  Bed making is the first step.  Hay is the most available thing for bed making.



First we have to cut the hay 5 – 10 cm length.  Then soak this in to pure water for 12 – 18 hours.  After removing water put the hay in to the boiling water for stewing.  This method is used for sterilization and keep the hay completely free from water.  We can also we come chemical substance for sterilization.  Then told the hay approximately 5 cm thick and put this into 15 X 10 size polithiene  cover.  Then put the seed on the hay.  Receipt this process tied the bag tightly.  Then make small holes the polithien bag for air transport.


Keep the bed in a dark and cool place.  After 10 – 15 days small filaments occur in the polithiene cover.  If it became 90% in bed we can remove the polithien cover.  Then put some mixture of cow dump powder, gravels, bottom soils etc. on the outer part of mushroom bed as a fertilizer.  We can power some water on the bed next day it self.  Don’t pour water more.  In that causes the seeds may be destroyed.  After one week the mushroom buds are appeared on the bed.  Mushroom will be ready for sailing before 4th days.  We will keep clean the room and surroundings.  We can house fly and insects by neem oil.  And once in two months we can apply smoke in the room.

The culturing of medicinal mushroom is different from edible mushroom.  We can culture Ganodarma Lucidum mushrooms with law expense.  The ganodarma mainly occur in yellowish red in colour.  We can growing up the spone or seed in the medium of paddy, wheat, maize etc.




The culturing of ganodarma experimented in the medium of timper powder, chaff, the work material from sugar cane, hay in international farm of Vellayani Agriculture college.  First prepare the mixture of 80% medium (hay), 20% bran, 2% of calcium carbonate, gypsum, 1% of sugar, 6% of moisture and covered if with a polithien sheet up to three days.  After three days on kg of mixture put in to a polithiene bag and sterilized it with the help of auto clave or pressure cooker to an hour.  After the medium will be cooled 75 grams spone mixed with it.

The polithiene cover keep in a dark and cool place.  The mushroom fungus glown up to a white colour along 25 days.  Then the cover opened and stored in a lace with 26 c temperature and light.  The mushroom buds appeared along 15 – 20 days.  The getting yellowish red mushroom appears along 15 – 20 days.  It self we can collect 150 – 160 gram mushroom in one gram mushroom bed.  We don’t allow the spone to gone out.  So we tired the mushroom bed and waste material after collecting the mushrooms.

One thing that we don’t know about mushroom culture.  That is the scientific method behind the mushroom seed or spone.




Take 2009 of potato and remove the pieces from it.  Then cut it in to small pieces.  Boiled in 1000 ml. water whether it became sott.  Filtured this solution in to a clean cloths.  And boild these 1000ml. solution with some water.  The 20 grams of dextrose and agar powder added into the solution.  Then boiled when the Agar dissolved.  Pour the solution in to a test tube and plug it with a non absorbent cotton.  It sterilized about 15 – 20 minutes in an auto clave.  With 15 pound pressure and 12100C temperature.  And keep the test tube when the medium will be cooked.


Select a mushroom.  When it grown up 10 half stage.  Clean the mushroom and cut in to 1-2 cm length.  And put it in to the medium in test tube.  A white fungi grown up in to the test tube after 15 days.  It is known as mother culture.


To make spone or seed we can mainly used paddy, wheat, maize etc. wash the grain and add some water.  Then cooked it.  After remove water we can mixed 2 gram calcium carbonate for 1 kg. grains.  Take 300 gram in to a polypropylene bag and covered with cotton.  Sterilized an autoclave with 1210C and 15 pound pressure up to 2 hours.  When it will be cooked add the small pieces of mushroom culture.  A white fungi occur in the cover up to 15 days we can used it as to seed.


We can used these seed in mushroom culture with the marketing base.  So the presents of more moisture and seed recombinants are badly affected our mushroom culture.  You can achieved big success in mushroom culture with some caring and treatment

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Types Suitable for cultivation

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At present 3 mushrooms are being cultivated in India. These are : the white mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), the paddy-straw mushroom (Volvariella vovvacea) and the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju). Of these, A. bisporus is the most popular and economically sound to grow and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. However, due to its low temperature requirement, its cultivation is restricted to the cool climatic areas and to the winter in the plains of Northen India. In summer, the tropical paddy-straw mushroom is suitable for growing in most parts of India. Even then it is less attractive commercially owing to very low yield per unit weight of the substrate and an extremely short shelf-life. But, as a kitchen-garden crop it is preferred because it is very delicious and nutritous.

Oyster mushroom can grow at moderate temperature ranging from 220 to 280C. therefore, it is suitable for most of the places of India. It is a familiar item in the menu of most hotels in Bangalore where it is being grown commercially.
In north India, the climate conditions prevailing during different seasons can be exploited for growing mushroom throughout the year. To this a year-wise production schedule is suggested :

Mid-November to Mid-March: Agaricus bisporus

February to Mid-April: Pleurotus sajor-caju

Mid-June to Mid-September: Volvariella volvacea

September to November: Pleurotus sajor-caju

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How to Start a Mushroom Farm

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Starting a mushroom farm is a potentially very profitable way of getting into the farming business. As the desire for gourmet cuisine rises and computer-controlled mushroom farm operating systems improve, the profit margins of mushroom farms continue to increase. Follow these steps to start your own mushroom farm and begin making money out of fungus.


  • Decide on your stock. Many factors can determine what kinds of mushrooms you should grow. Among these factors are your location and the amount of capital you have to put into seed stock, growing systems, local markets and labor. Think about what kind of mushroom is right for your farm before you start growing.
  • Find the right space. Because of sophisticated growing rooms, ambient air temperature is generally not a problem (though it can be an issue for certain kinds of mushrooms). Find a space that is large enough to house growing rooms and pasteurization rooms in addition to stockrooms and offices.
  • Consider a turnkey solution. There are a number of firms in the mushroom farming market devoted to providing start-to-finish mushroom growing solutions. Companies like Richmond Specialty Mushroom Farms will help you start and maintain your mushroom farm. Consult with a mushroom farm company before you start your farm.
  • Survey your market. It's important for you to understand both your supply chain and your market before you start the farm. You need to know where to get supplies and how much money the supplies will cost (and how stable that cost is), in addition to the going rate on the market and the cost of shipping the mushrooms once they're ready for sale.
  • Complete your farm by making it into a business. Like any business, a mushroom farm requires staff, branding and a marketing strategy. Hire experienced staff from other farming fields and recruit marketing specialists to help develop a good brand for your business and your product.

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