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Agriculture and Life

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KERALA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE

College of Agriculture, Vellayani.PO., Thiruvananthapuram-695 522

College of Agriculture, Vellanikkara, KAU, P.O., Thrissur-680 656

College of Agriculture, Padannakkad, Kasargod-671 328

College of Forestry, Vellanikkara, KAU P.O., Thrissur-680 656

College of Co-opern., Banking & Mgt, KAU P.O., Vellanikkara-680 656

MAJOR INSTITUTIONS IN AGRICULTURE SECTOR

KERALA AGRO INDUSTRIES CORPORATION LTD.
Kissan Jyothi, Fort, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 025


KERALA AGRO MACHINERY CORPORATION LTD. 
Athani.P.O., Ernakulam - 683 585


KERALA STATE HORTICULTURAL PRODUCTS
DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION
Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram


STATE FARMING CORPORATION OF KERALA
Nellipally RC., Punalur, Kollam


TRIVANDRUM RUBBER WORKS
Thiruvananthapuram - 695 007


KERALA KERAKARSHAKA SAHAKARANA FEDERATION (KERAFED)
Aristo Junction, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 007


THE PLANTATION CORPORATION OF KERALA
Kottayam - 686 004


OIL PALM INDIA LTD.
P.B. No. 1715, Kottayam - 686 039 
KERALA STATE WAREHOUSING CORPORATION
P.B. No. 1727, Kochi - 682 016

KERALA STATE CO-OPERATIVE RUBBER MARKETING
FEDERATION LIMITED
P.B. No. 15, Gandhi Nagar, Kochi - 682 020

KERALA STATE CO-OPERATIVE MARKETING FEDERATION
Post Box. No. 2024, Gandhi Nagar, Kochi - 682020

KERALA LAND DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION
Thycadu, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 014

SMALL FARMER'S AGRI BUSINESS CONSORTIUM
Thiruvananthapuram

STATE AGRICULTURAL PRICES BOARD
Statue, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 001

VEGETABLE AND FRUIT PROMOTION COUNCIL KERALAM
Mythri Bhavan, Kakkanad, Kochi - 682 030

FERTILISERS AND CHEMICALS TRAVANCORE LTD. (FACT)
P.B. No. 15, Udyogamandal - 683 501

COCONUT DEVELOPMENT BOARD
Kera Bhavan, Kochi

RUBBER BOARD
Kottayam - 686 002

SPICES BOARD
P.B. No. 2277, Kochi - 682 023

TROPICAL BOTANIC GARDEN AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE
(TBGRI), Palode, Thiruvananthapuram

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SPICES RESEARCH (IISR)
Marikunnu P.O., Kozhikode - 673 012

CENTRE FOR WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
AND MANAGEMENT (CWRDM)
Kunnamangalam, Kozhikode - 673 571

CENTRAL TUBER CROPS RESEARCH INSTITUTE (CTCRI)
Sreekariyam, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 017

CENTRAL PLANTATION CROPS RESEARCH INSTITUTE (CPCRI)
Kasaragod - 671 124


DIRECTORATE OF COCOA, ARECANUT & SPICES DEVELOPMENT
Kozhikode - 673 005

THE CASHEW EXPORT PROMOTION COUNCIL OF INDIA
P.B. No. 1709, Kochi - 682 016

REGIONAL RESEARCH LABORATORY
Industrial Estate P.O., Pappanamcode, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 069

CENTER FOR EARTH SCIENCE STUDIES
Akkulam, P.B. No.7250, Thuruvikkal.P.O., Thiruvananthapuram - 695 031

RAJEEV GANDHI CENTRE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY
Melarannor Road, Pooiappura, Thiruvananthapuram

M.S. SWAMINATHAN RESEARCH FOUNDATION, KALPETTA
Agro Bio Diversity Centre

COIR BOARD
Coir House, Kochi - 682 016

OTHER RESEARCH STATIONS OF KAU

Agricultural Research Station, Mannuthy

Agronomic Research Station, Chalakudy

Aromatic & Medicinal Plants Research Station, Odakkali

Banana Research Station, Kannara

Cardamom Research Station, Pampadumpara

Cattle Breading Farm, Thumburmuzhi

Cashew Research Station, Anakayam

Cashew Research Station, Madakkathara

Cattle Infertility Scheme, Vellimadukunnu

Coconut Research Station, Balaramapuram

Cropping Systems Research Centre, Karamana

Farming Systems Research Station, Sadanandapuram, Kottarakkara

Fisheries Station, Puduvyppu

Livestock Research Station, Thiruvazhamkunnu

Pepper Research Station, Panniyur

Pineapple Research Station, Vazhakulam, Muvattupuzha

Pineapple Research Station, Vellanikkara

Rice Research Station, Moncompu

Rice Research Station, Vyttila

Sugarcane Research Station, Thiruvalla

Soil Conservation Research Centre, Konni

University Livestock Farm, Mannuthy

University Pig Breeding Farm, Mannuthy

University Poultry & Duck Farm, Mannuthy

Sales Counter, Mannuthy

Communication Centre, Mannuthy

Instructional Farm, Vellayani

REGIONAL RESEARCH STATIONS OF KAU

Regional Agricultural Research Station (Northern Zone), Pilicode

Regional Agricultural Research Station (Central Zone), Pattambi

Regional Agricultural Research Station (Southern Zone), Vellayani

Regional Agricultural Research Station (Special problem area zone),Kumarakom

Regional Agricultural Research Station (Highrange Zone), Ambalavayal

Onattukara Regional Agricultural Research Station, Kayamkulam

FACULTY OF FISHERIES

College of Fisheries, Panangad RO., Ernakulam-682 526

FACULTY OF VETERINARY & ANIMAL SCIENCES

College of Vety. & Animal Sciences, Mannuthy P.O. - 680 651

College of Vety. & Animal Sciences, Pookod, Wayanad

College of Dairy Science & Techno. Mannuthy P.O., Thrissur - 680 651


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Lifestyle in Laos

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At least 5 million hectares of Laos's total land area of 23,680,000 hectares are suitable for cultivation. However, just 17 percent of the land area (between 850,000 and 900,000 hectares) is actually cultivated, less than 4 percent of the total area. Rice accounted for about 80 percent of cultivated land during the 1989- 90 growing season, including 422,000 hectares of lowland wet rice and 223,000 hectares of upland rice. This demonstrates that although there is interplanting of upland crops and fish are found in fields, irrigated rice agriculture remains basically a monoculture system despite government efforts to encourage crop diversification. Cultivated land area had increased by about 6 percent from 1975-77 but in 1987 only provided citizens with less than one-fourth of a hectare each, given a population of approximately 3.72 million in 1986. In addition to land under cultivation, about 800,000 hectares are used for pastureland or contain ponds for raising fish. Pastureland is rotated, and its use is not fixed over a long period of time.

Agricultural production rates

By the early 1990s, agriculture was still the foundation of the economy. Although a slight downward trend in the sector's contribution to gross domestic product (GDP) was evident throughout the 1980s and early 1990s—from about 65 percent of GDP in 1980 to about 61 percent in 1989 and further decreasing to between 53 and 57 percent in 1991—a similar decrease in the percentage of the labor force working in that sector was not readily apparent. Some sources identified such a downward trend—from 79 percent in 1970 to about 71 percent in 1991—but both the LPDR's State Planning Commission and the World Bank reported that 80 percent of the labor force was employed in agriculture in 1986. Available evidence thus suggests that the percentage of the labor force employed in agriculture in fact remained relatively steady at about 80 percent throughout the 1970s and 1980s. Agricultural production grew at an average annual rate of between 3 and 4 percent between 1980 and 1989, almost double its growth rate in the preceding decade, despite two years of drought—in 1987 and 1988—when production actually declined. paddy rice production declined again in 1991 and 1992 also because of drought. By 1990 the World Bank estimated that production was growing at an increasingly faster rate of 6.2 percent. Increased production, long one of the government's goals, is a result in part of greater use of improved agricultural inputs during the 1970s and 1980s. The area of land under irrigation had been expanding at a rate of 12 percent per annum since 1965, so that by the late 1980s, irrigated land constituted between 7 and 13 percent of total agricultural land. Although still a small percentage, any increase helps to facilitate a continued rise in agricultural productivity. Smallscale village irrigation projects rather than large-scale systems predominate. Use of fertilizers increased as well, at an average annual rate of 7.2 percent; given that commercial fertilizer use had been virtually nonexistent in the late 1970s, this, too, is an important, if small, achievement in the government's pursuit of increased productivity. In addition, the number of tractors in use nearly doubled during the decade, from 460 tractors in 1980 to 860 in 1989.


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Lifestyle in Indonesia

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Entering the 21st century, the world community began to realize the danger posed by the use of synthetic chemicals in agriculture. People getting wise in choosing food that is safe for health and environmentally friendly. Healthy lifestyle with the slogan "Back to Nature" has become a new trend to leave the old life patterns that use non-natural chemicals, such as fertilizers, chemical pesticides and synthetic growth hormones in agricultural production.Healthy food and high nutritional value can be produced with a new method known as organic farming.

Organic agriculture is a cultivation technique that relies on natural ingredients without the use of chemicals synthetic. The main purpose of organic agriculture is to provide agricultural products, especially food that is safe for the health of producers and consumers and does not damage the environment. Healthy lifestyle has been institutionalized in such international guarantees require that agricultural products should be safe to eat beratribut (food safety attributes), high nutrition (nutritional attributes) and environmentally friendly (eco-labeling attributes). Consumer preferences such as product demand causes the world of organic farming increased rapidly.

Indonesia has a wealth of resources unique tropical biodiversity, abundance of sunlight, water and soil, as well as respecting cultural society of natural, organic farming potential is very large. Organic agricultural products market of the world increased 20% per year, therefore the development of organic agricultural cultivation should prioritize the high economic value crops to meet the needs of domestic and export markets.


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