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Livestock

Poultry farming

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Poultry farming is the practice of raising poultry, such as chickensturkeysducks, and geese, as a subcategory of animal husbandry, for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food.

More than 50 billion chickens are reared annually as a source of food, for both their meat and their eggs. Chickens farmed for meat are called broilers, whilst those farmed for eggs are called egg-laying hens.[1] In total, the UK alone consumes over 29 million eggs per day. Some hens can produce over 300 eggs a year. Chickens will naturally live for 6 or more years. After 12 months, the hen’s productivity will start to decline. This is when most commercial laying hens are slaughtered.

The majority of poultry are raised using intensive farming techniques. According to the Worldwatch Institute, 74 percent of the world's poultry meat, and 68 percent of eggs are produced this way.[3] One alternative to intensive poultry farming is free range farming.


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Livestock a major threat to environment

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After missing his first six shots, Deron Williams had more than half the game to regain his confidence.

According to a new report published by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, the livestock sector generates more greenhouse gas emissions as measured in CO2 equivalent – 18 percent – than transport. It is also a major source of land and water degradation.

Says Henning Steinfeld, Chief of FAO’s Livestock Information and Policy Branch and senior author of the report: “Livestock are one of the most significant contributors to today’s most serious environmental problems. Urgent action is required to remedy the situation.”

With increased prosperity, people are consuming more meat and dairy products every year. Global meat production is projected to more than double from 229 million tonnes in 1999/2001 to 465 million tonnes in 2050, while milk output is set to climb from 580 to 1043 million tonnes.


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Cattle Feed

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Uttar Pradesh tops in milk production in India. There are as many as 25 well-defined breeds(External website that opens in a new window) of cattle and six well-defined breeds of buffaloes in India. A few breeds are the dairy type in which females yield a large quantity of milk and males work. A majority of breeds are the draught type where females don't produce much milk but bullocks are of a high quality. There are also "dual-purpose" breeds where females yield a moderate quantity of milk and males are good working bullocks. Well-defined breeds are found in dry parts of the country while cattle in areas of heavy rainfall like south and east India usually do not belong to any definite breed.

Cattle feeding routines are quite traditional. Farmers select their own ingredients and make their own mixtures of feed. The productivity of cattle is restricted because of their poor genetic make up. This means that even if such cattle were offered high-quality compound feed (industry feed), productivity may not see an increase.

Tips for Cattle Farmers

Newly born calves must be fed colostrum within half an hour of birth and should be cleaned properly.

Deworming of calves up to six months should be done at frequent intervals.

The barns or pens housing animals should be regularly cleaned with disinfectants and warmed.

Ensure availability of clean drinking water.

Water troughs need regular cleaning.

Large animals are likely to suffer from Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). Farmers are advised to get their animals vaccinated against this disease.

Cows and buffaloes that express heat in the morning should be inseminated in the evening and vice-versa.

For genetic upgradation and enhanced milk yield in cows and buffaloes, farmers are advised to avoid breeding with scrub/bulls in the villages.

Milch and pregnant animals should be provided mineral mixture regularly.

 

 


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