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Crops & Vegetables

Tissue Culture Banana

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What is Tissue Culture ?

The propagation of a plant by using a plant part or single cell or group cell in a test tube under very controlled and hygienic conditions is called "Tissue Culture".

Status in India

Banana is a globally important fruit crop with 97.5 million tones of production. In India it supports livelihood of million of people. With total annual production of 16.91 million tones from 490.70 thousand ha., with national average of 33.5 T/ha. Maharashtra ranks first in production with 60 T/ha. Banana contributes 37% to total fruit production in India.

Banana is one of the major and economically important fruit crop of Maharashtra. Banana occupy 20% area among the total area under crop in India. Maharashtra ranks second in area and first in productivity in India. Jalgaon is a major Banana growing district in Maharashtra which occupy 50,000 hectares area under Banana. But most of Banana is grown by planting suckers. The technology development in agriculture is very fast, it results in developing Tissue Culture Technique.

Agro Climate

Banana is basically a tropical crop, grows well in temperature range of 13ºC – 38ºC with RH regime of 75-85%. In India this crop is being cultivated in climate ranging from humid tropical to dry mild subtropics through selection of appropriate varieties like Grandnaine. Chilling injury occurs at temperatures below 12ºC. The normal growth of the banana begins at 18ºC, reaches optimum at 27ºC, then declines and comes to a halt at 38ºC. Higher temperature causes sun scorching. High velocity wind which exceeds 80 km phrs damages the crop.


Soil for banana should have good drainage, adequate fertility and moisture. Deep, rich loamy soil with pH between 6-7.5 are most preferred for banana cultivation. Ill drained, poorly aerated and nutritionally deficient soils are not suitable for banana. Saline solid, calcareous soil are not suitable for Banana cultivation. Avoided soil of low laying areas, very sandy & heavy black cotton with ill drainage.

A soil that is not too acidic & not too alkaline, rich in organic material with high nitrogen content, adequate phosphorus level and plenty of potash are good for banana.


In India banana is grown under diverse conditions and production systems. Selection of varieties, therefore is based on a large number of varieties catering to various kinds of needs and situations. However, around 20 cultivars viz. Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta, Monthan, Poovan, Nendran, Red banana, Nyali, Safed Velchi, Basarai, Ardhapuri, Rasthali, Karpurvalli, Karthali and Grandnaine etc..

Grandnaine is gaining popularity and may soon be the most preferred variety due to its tolerance to biotic stresses and good quality bunches. Bunches have well spaced hands with straight orientation of figures, bigger in size. Fruit develops attractive uniform yellow colour with better self life & quality than other cultivars.

Land Preparation

Prior to planting banana, grow the green manuring crop like daincha, cowpea etc. and burry it in the soil. The land can be ploughed 2-4 times and leveled. Use ratovator or harrow to break the clod and bring the soil to a fine tilt. During soil preparation basal dose of FYM is added and thoroughly mixed into the soil.

A pit size of 45cm x 45cm x 45cm is normally required. The pits are to be refilled with topsoil mixed with 10 kg of FYM (well decomposed), 250 gm of Neem cake and 20 gm of conbofuron. Prepared pits are left to solar radiation helps in killing the harmful insects, is effective against soil borne diseases and aids aeration. In saline alkali soil where PH is above 8 Pit mixture is to be modified to incorporate organic matter.

Addition of organic matter helps in reducing salinity while addition of purlite improves, porosity and aeration. Alternative to planting in pits is planting in furrows. Depnding on soil strata one can choose appropriate method as well as spacing and depth at which plant is required to be planted.





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Botanical Name: Musa spp.
Manjeri Nendran:Early maturing, low height, comparatively high yielding
Kaliyethan:Common variety in Trivandrum district
Nedunendran:Fruits are bigger in size, high yielding
Chengazhikkodan:Fruits are tasty and golden yellow in colour
Attunendran:Suitable for rain fed crop
Mettuppalayam:Tall variety, high yielding, long duration
Mindoli:Late maturing, Fruits are bigger in size.
Zanzibar:Very big fruits, with two – three hands in a bunch, lacks male inflorescence
Big Ebanga:High yielding.Does not have male inflorescene. 
Table varieties: Robusta, Palayankodan,, Poovan, Njalipoovan, Kadali, Chenkadali, Dwarf Cavendish, Karpooravally, Poomkalli, Koompillakannan, Chinali, Virupakshi.
Culinary varieties: Monthan, Batheesa, Nendrapadathy
Climate & Soil: Tropical humid climate, Well-drained soils with good fertility
Season: April-May , August-September and October.Adjust the time of planting so as to avoid high temperature and drought at the time of emergence of bunches. 
Seed rate
Seed Treatment: Remove the roots and outer skin of the rhizomes. Dip them in a solution of Chlorpyriphos @ 2.5 ml/l for 20mts. Drain the solution. The rhizomes are to be smeared with cowdung solution and ash and dried in the sun for about 3-4 days and stored in shade up to 15 days protecting from rain before planting.
Spacing: Pit size 50 x 50 x 50 cm
Nendran(pure)- 2m X 2m 
Poovan, Chenkadali, Palayankodan, Monthan - 2.1 x 2.1 m 
Robusta - 2.4 x 1.8 m
Tissue culture banana - 2mX2m
Nutrient management : In order to adjust the acidity in the soil, apply lime at the rate of 500g to 1 kg. Apply Organic manure @10 kg/plant, NPK - 190:115:300g/plant
Tissue culture Nendran banana: Apply Organic manure @20 kg/plantNPK- 300:115:450 g/plant in 6 splits.
Crop Management:

  • During summer months, irrigate once in three days.
  • Ensure good drainage and prevent water logging.
  • Mulching the basin with crop waste or waste quality paddy straw, especially for the rain fed crop will reduce the moisture loss through evaporation. It will have an additional benefit of reducing the weed growth as well as improving the organic matter content, and thereby considerably improving the bunch yield.
  • Sow the seeds of green manure crops at the time of planting, cut and incorporate just before flowering.
  • Remove male inflorescence and small fingers in lower hands
  • Wrap bunch one month after the emergence
  • Provide propping after bunch emergance.
  • Remove all suckers that are formed before the bunch emergence
    Pest Management :
    • Banana rhizome weevil, nematodes, aphids : Field sanitation, neem cake 1kg/plant, 25 g phorate 10G (eg. Thimet 10G) or 20 g carbofuran 3G (eg Furadan 3G) each 20 days, 75 days and 165 days after planting
    • Banana pseudostem weevil : : Field sanitation, Dersban (20%EC) or chlorpyrifos (0.05%) at 2.5 ml per litre, Smear psuedostem mud + Sevin 50WP(4 g/l)
    • Leaf eating caterpillar : : Ekalux (25% EC) 2ml/l.
    Disease Management :
    • Bunchy top disease, Kokkan disease : Vector control, Clean cultivation.
    • Sigatoka leaf spot : Field sanitation, 1% Bordeaux mixture, Fytolan 4g/l. .
    • Panama wilt : Bavistin 1.5 – 2 g/l, lime 1 kg/pit. .
    • Bacterial wilt : 5kg bleaching powder per ha in irrigation water, soil drench 4g Fytolan 1.5g Streptocylin in 1litre of water. .
    • Infectious chlorosis : Insect control, field sanitation. .
    Harvesting: Cut gently with a sharp knife, the bunches should not be kept on sand , dehand, grade and pack.
    Yield: 20- 35 t/ha

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    Zoological name :

    Asparagus officinalis

    Found In :

    Kouchibouguas National Park, Narnala Wildlife Sanctuary and Sariska Tiger Reserve


    Description : Garden Asparagus grows to a height of 3 feet. It is an herbaceous perennial and is well known for its edible young shoots. It has fleshy roots and fern-like feathery foliage. Its roots grows 3 feet down in the soil. Young shoots are green succulentand tender. It has smooth and green stems which are 4-6 feet tall. It has green slender branches which appear more like the leaves than the branches. It produces male and female flowers on the separate plants. Flowers are greenish, bell shaped, which grows in the group of 1 to 3. Round bright red berries are produced on the female plants and each berries contains several black seeds.

    Other Species : Asparagus aethiopicus, Asparagus africanus, Asparagus declinatus, Asparagus falcatus, Asparagus flagellaris, Asparagus scandens, Asparagus umbellatus, Asparagus plumosus, Asparagus macowanni, Asparagus asparagoides. Garden Asparagus is known to have more than 250 species all over the world. 

    Location : Garden Asparagus found throughout India especially in the Northern India. It is widely grown in the jungles at an altitude of 8,000 feet. It is mainly grown in the gardens. It can also be found in the Kouchibouguas National Park, Narnala Wildlife Sanctuary and Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary in India.

    Cultivation methods :It is mostly propagated through seed, which are allowed to grow for a year. It is mostly planted in the spring season. The plant prefers acid, neutral, and alkaline soil. It grows in semi shade or no shade. The pant is placed in the trench which is 12 -18 inches wide and six inches deep. The roots are spread out uniformly, with the crown bud side up, in an upright, centered position, slightly higher than the roots. It requires water regularly especially when it is young. Young shoots come out in early spring. It flowers in August and the seeds are ripen from September to October.

    Medicinal uses : The roots of the plants are prescribed for the diarrhea and dysentery. They are useful in the nervous disorders. dyspepsia, and tumors, scalding of urine, throat infections, tuberculosis, cough, bronchitis and general debility. It is used in the treatment of the rheumatism and edema due to heart failure. The fresh juice taken in small dose acts medicinally as the diuretic and laxative. It an excellent form of folic acid, which is used in blood cell formation and prevention of liver diseases. It is also a good source of potassium, which helps in muscle recovery and prevents cramping. It is rich in Vitamin C, Thiamin, B6 and fiber. It contains rutin, which strengthens capillary walls, and GSH, which is the cancer fighter. 

    Other uses : The delicate flavour of Asparagus make it favourite among the vegetable lovers. They are normally boiled or steamed. There are so many vegetable recipes made out the Garden Asparagus. Its young shoots are taken as the raw salad. It contains low calorie. It has no fat at all.

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    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a fascinating and versatile plant and using neem has many benefits . All parts of the neem tree are useful. The most widely used parts of the neem tree are the seed kernels, the leaves and the bark. It is an oldest tradition used effectively in dental care. It has antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antidiabetic, and antiinfertility properties.

    Neem Seeds

    • The fruit of the neem plant looks a lot like an olive. The flesh surrounds a seed that contains one or several kernels.Besides that the oil is valued for its huge range of medicinal uses. The seed kernels contain the highest concentration of active substances in the neem plant. Pressing them for oil is one way to get at them, but you can also make various extracts from the seeds.
    • Neem oil, the most popular neem plant product, is made by pressing the neem seed kernels.
    • The kernels can contain as much as 50% oil.
    • In the western world the seed oil is mostly known and valued as a safe and effective insecticide. Neem oil is very popular with organic gardeners.
    • It is also used as a natural insect repellent, a safe and more efficient alternative to the harmful deet.
    • Neem seed oil is also an ingredient in many skin care products. In India most of the neem oil is used in neem soap, but there are also neem shampoos, lotions, creams etc.
    • The seed oil can be toxic and should not be taken internally.

    Neem Leaves

    • The leaves of the neem plant are the most versatile and most easily available resource. They contain the same active ingredients as the seeds, just in much lower concentration.
    • Although the leaves of the neem tree have been used this way for thousands of years in India, Neem is a very powerful herb.
    • The topical use of neem leaf extracts and leaf paste is safe.
    • Skin care and the treatment of skin disorders is where the neem plant really shines .Leaf pastes and extracts are used in skin care products, hair oils, in neem toothpastes and mouth washs, and they also have lots of medicinal uses.
    • Many herbalists recommend chewing the leaves, taking capsules of dried leaf, or drinking the bitter tea.
    • The leaves cleanse the blood, help the gastrointestinal system (ulcers!), support the liver, and strengthen the immune system, to name just some of the most popular benefits
    • It is extremely effective in eliminating bacterial and fungal infections or parasites
    • Its antiviral activity can treat warts and cold sores
    • It soothes inflammation and reduces redness
    • It moisturizes the skin and keeps it supple
    • It can even lighten scars and pigmentation.
    • Examples of such uses are scabies and acne treatment.

    Neem Bark

    • The bark of the neem tree is not used as much as the seeds or leaves, for obvious reasons. There is not as much of it, it does not regenerate as quickly, and it is slightly more difficult to use. Because of its dry and hard nature the ingredients are more difficult to extract.
    • However, in one medicinal field the bark is the recommended plant part to use. That field is dental care. The bark contains a higher concentration of active ingredients than the leaves, and is especially high in ingredients with antiseptic and anti-inflammatory action. Neem bark is highly effective when treating gingivitis (gum disease).

    Neem Twigs

    • Chewing young, supple branches, and then using them as a toothbrush, prevents cavities and gum disease
    • Indian villagers have used this method for centuries (Though in modern India neem toothpastedaatun , mouthwashs, and bark powders are the preferred method)

    Neem Cake

    • Neem cake is a strange name for the pulp that is left after extracting neem seed oil from kernels
    • It is indeed edible, at least for animals, and is sometimes used as fodder
    • However, the most common and recommended use is as a soil amendment and fertilizer

    Neem Flowers

    • The flowers of the neem plant have a lovely, sweet, honey-like smell
    • It is quite intense, noticeable from a distance, but never overpowering
    • Bees love neem flowers and neem honey is popular
    • The flower oil is also used in aromatherapy and has a calming and restorative effect

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    Benefits of Fennel herb

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    Fennel is a herb native to the Mediterranean region which gained popularity ever since the Middle Ages when it was cultivated near monasteries. Also, fennel is one of the nine sacred herbs of the saxons which was capable to cure the nine instances of the illness.

    Description of Fennel herb

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is an edible, perrenial herb which resembles dill. It was discovered in the Mediterranean region and south-east Asia (from east of Morroco and Portugal all the way to Pakistan). The biggest growers of fennel today are: the United States, France, India and Rusia. Fennel was brought to North America by the Spanish missionaires to be grown in their own medicinal gardens. In California it is known under the name of "star anise". The fact that this herb was used in the ancient times is shown by the traditions presented in mythology. In Greek myths this plant was associated with Dionysus (the god of feasts and wine). It is also said that intelligence came from the gods and reached the humans through a fennel stem. Fennel was considered to have magical characteristics. In the Middle Ages during the summer solstice this herb was placed by the door in order to fend off the evil spirits. What is more, the plant seeds were used to block the keyhole to keep the ghosts from entering the homes.

    Fennel seeds are 4-8 cm long, thin and slightly curved with colors that vary from brown to light green. The bittersweet smell and the slightly minty taste make this herb similar to ansine. Many languages (like Hindoo, Indonesian, Hungarian) contain only one word for both fennel and ansine. Fennel fruits - seeds are an old type of seasoning found in the Mediterranean region. These are used to make pickles, scented bread, scented vinegar, meat, fish, sea fruits. The poor would use fennel to appease the hunger in the Lent period but also for spicing up meals.

    Proprieties and benefits of Fennel

    It is believed from folklore that this herb has mysterious vitalistic characters. It was believed that snakes would digest fennel to shed their skin and to sharpen their vision. Likewise, it was believed that this herb has a rejuvenating effect on man and helps the eye sight. Moreover, fennel stimulates lactation and loss of weight. The consumption in excessive quantities of fennel is not indicated because it can lead to muscular convulsions and even hallucinations.

    Fennel contains many minerals and vitamins: vitamin C, fibers, manganese, potasium, magnesium, calcium, iron, vitamin B3 etc. The vitamin C from the bulb of the plant is antibacterian and very useful to the immune system. Furthermore the fennel bulb is an important source of fibers which help reduce the cholesterol level. Also, the fibers from this herb can prevent intestinal cancer owing to the fact that they can eliminate toxins and cancerous substances from intestines. The herb is rich in potasium - an essential mineral which helps decrease the high blood pressure that can cause a heart attack.

    Fennel seeds, leaves and roots are edible, but the fat extracted from the fennel seeds was proved to be toxic even in small quantities - leading to skin rashes, breathing problems and nausea. 

    Mixtures and treatments

    Owing to the invigorating and purifying effects that fennel has over the human body, it can be used in treating bruises, cellulitis, obesity, retaining water, eliminating the toxins from the body, halitosis, inflamations of the mouth. Fennel helps eliminate the common cold and reduce the bouts of cough due to its expectorant nature (contains big quantity of alpha-pinen). The steam resulting from the boiling of the fennel leaves in water alleviates asthma and bronchitis.

    The mixtures and infusions from dry fennel seeds eliminate stomachaches and stimulate digestion. In childrens? case fennel is a good remedy against intestinal worms by administering light infusions of fennel leaves and seeds. The fennel mixture is used to sharpen the eyesight and alleviate eye irritations. Fennel seeds and roots unclog the liver, spleen, billiary bladder and eliminate cramps. In order to prepare an infusion of fennel seed it is necessary to crush a spoonfull of fennel seeds in a cup of water or milk. The container in which the mixture is being prepared must not be made out of metal. After boiling the mixture, 10 minutes are necessary for it to cool. Two-three cups of this mixtures should be consumed daily. 

    The tea from fennel leaves and seeds is beneficial for removing intestinal worms and bacteria. The syrup made from fennel juice alleviates the violent bouts of cough. The volatile oil is antiseptic, sedative, carminative, expectorant and it is used in the making of soap and perfumes. The herb also has a very valued effect: if it is pulverized in coops and stables it keeps the flees away.


    It is recommended that pregnant women stay away from mixtures containing fennel. In large quantities fennel is an uterine stimulant. It does not cause any side effects if it is used in meals. In using the volatile oil any direct contact with the skin is to be avoided due to the fact that it can cause dermatitis for the individulas with sensitive skin.

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