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Aloe Vera

Aloe Vera health benefit

Also called "the elixir of youth" by the Russians,"the herb of immortality" by the old Egyptians or

Saturday, 23 April 2011 Comments

Aparjit

Aparajita (Clitoria tern

Aparajita has several synonyms in Ayurvedic scriptures like gokarnika, ardrakarni, girikarnika, supu

Saturday, 23 April 2011 Comments

Arecanut

Arecanut

Image - Arecanut

PlantCharacteristics The arecanut palms grow under a variety of climatic and so

Monday, 14 March 2011 Comments

Ash Gourd

ASH GOURD (Benincasa his

Image - ASH GOURD (Benincasa his

PlantCharacteristics It is annual vine trailing on the soil surface. It is also k

Monday, 14 March 2011 Comments

Crops & Vegetables

Organic Cultivation of Pepper

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Black pepper is the most important item in export basket of spices from India. It is produced in Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, besides very negligible quantities in certain non­traditional states.

The methods for organic production of black pepper when grown as an intercrop or pure crop should conform to the standards laid down for the purpose. An isolation belt of atleast 25 m wide is to be left from all around the conventional plantation. The produce from this isolation belt shall not be treated as organic. In sloppy lands adequate precaution should be taken to avoid the entry of run off water and drift from the neighbouring farms.

For an existing plantation, a minimum of three years is required as conversion period for organic cultivation. For a newly planted or replanted area raised through organic cultivation practices, the first yield itself can be considered as organic produce provided chemicals have not been used in the previous cropping. In the case of cultivation on virgin land and for farms where records are available that no chemicals were used previously, the conversion period can be relaxed. It is desirable that organic method of production is followed in the entire farm, but in large estates the transition can be phased out for which a conversion plan is to be prepared.

Sources of planting material

The runner shoots or aerial shoots, collected from elite mother vines grown organically, shall be used for generation of planting material. However, initially the cuttings can be collected from conventional plantations in the absence of purely organic source. The management practices followed in raising of rooted cuttings should conform to organic standards. The nursery techniques such as bed nursery or rapid multiplication using bamboo splits can be used for production of rooted planting material. The following practices may be adopted for better results.

  1. The soil should be solarised prior to use.
  2. Such soil should be inoculated with cultures of VAM and Trichoderma (250 g mass multiplied media in 25 kg compost)
  3. The vines in the rapid multiplication units may be sprayed with vermi wash (50 ml per unit) for enhancing growth.

The two important nursery diseases viz., leaf rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani and basal wilt caused by Sclerotium rolfsi can be minimum if solarised soil inoculated with VAM and Trichoderma is used. However, if isolated incidence of these diseases is noticed, timely adoption of phytosanitary measures and spot application of Bordeaux mixture 1 % may be done. In areas where nematode problems are likely to occur, addition of crushed neem seed is recommended.

Preparation of land

In sloppy lands adequate soil and water conservation measures are necessary at the time of preparing the land for planting. While doing so, the soil may be disturbed to the minimum in all agricultural operations.

Planting

While choosing the live standards, as many number of recommended species as possible may be used to ensure better biodiversity. Use of Erythrina sp. should be minimized as the plant harbours root knot nematode.
With the onset of monsoon two-to three rooted cuttings are planted individually in the pits on the northern side of the standard. Application of two kg compost or rotten cow dung mixed with 125 g rock phosphate may be made as a basal dose at the time of planting the rooted cuttings.

Cultural practices

As the cuttings grow the shoots are to be tied to the standard as often as required. The young vines should be protected from hot sun during summer by providing artificial shade. Regulation of shade by lopping off the branches of standards is necessary not only for providing optimum light, but also for enabling the standards to grow straight. Excessive shading during flowering and fruiting of pepper vines is likely to encourage pest infestation. The lopping so obtained should be utilized properly either for mulching or for composting immediately without losing moisture.

Adequate mulch with green leaf or organic matter should be given towards the end of the north-east monsoon. The base of the vines should not be disturbed to avoid root damage. Weeding may be done only when necessary by slashing and the materials should be used for mulching. Growing cover crops like Calapagonium mucunoides, Mimosa invisa is recommended to provide an effective soil cover to prevent soil erosion during the rainy season and weed growth. The borders of the farm and road edges should be raised with suitable leguminous cover crops to prevent soil erosion and for use in composting.

Manuring

Compost or farmyard manure may be applied @ 20 kg/vine/year during May-June. This can be partially or completely substituted by vermicompost in which case the quantity needed will be half. If found necessary based on soil test, application of rock phosphate, bone meal, lime and dolomite may be carried out. Wood ash may be used in potash deficient areas. Compost made from green loppings, crop residues, grasses, cow dung, poultry droppings etc., fortified wood ash and/or rock phosphate should be used regularly instead of farmyard manure alone. Such compost can be further enriched with non-edible oil cakes and right microbial cultures prior to withdrawal from compost pit and before applying to the field. Crushed neem seed @ 2 kg/vine/year may be applied in areas infested with nematodes. Use of bio-fertilizers can also be resorted to in a restricted manner.

Plant protection

Diseases

The major disease of pepper is foot rot caused by the fungus Phytophthora capsici (P. palmivora). The minor diseases are pollu disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, stunted disease and slow decline. For the control of foot rot disease, regular adoption of phytosanitary measures is most important. Tillage operations are to be kept to the minimum to avoid soil disturbance and root damage. Proper drainage is essential.

Application of Trichoderma multiplied in a suitable carrier medium @ 500 g/vine/year is also recommended. Whenever pollu disease or aerial symptoms of foot rot is noticed, restricted spraying of Bordeaux mixture 1 % may be done. Planting materials from mother vines showing symptoms of stunted disease and phyllody should not be collected for raising rooted cuttings. Application of crushed neem seed mentioned earlier will be useful to check the slow decline or slow wilt disease.

Pests

Pollu beetle (Longitarsus nigripennis) and leaf gall thrips (Liothrips karnyl) may be managed by spraying neem oil 400 ml per 100 litres of water or other neem preparations as per recommendations. Tobacco decoction may be used to control the scale insect. Where nematode problem is serious, Marigold (Tagetus sp.) may be grown as a trap plant. They are to be uprooted at the flowering stage and the root portion burnt.

Harvest and post harvest operations

In India, pepper flowers in May-June. The crop takes about 6-8 months from flowering to harvest. The harvest season extends from November to January in plains and January to March in hills. During harvesting the whole spike is hand picked when one or two berries in the spike turn bright orange red.

At the time of harvesting no chemical should be applied to ward off red ants. The berries are separated from the harvested spikes and dried in the sun for 7-8 days, on a clean concrete floor or bamboo mat till they are crisp. During sun drying it is important to turn over the material periodically to facilitate uniform drying. Without turning, mould contamination may result in a poorly dried product with greyish unattractive appearance.

For the preparation of good quality black pepper, a simple blanching process which can be easily adopted by even small and marginal pepper growers, has been developed in India. For this the mature greenish yellow, pepper spikes are de spiked after harvest. The pepper berries after cleaning are transferred to perforated aluminium vessel or bamboo basket and dipped in boiling water for a minute, drained and spread out on a clean cement floor or bamboo mat for sun-drying. The water should be clean and uncontaminated.

Advantages of blanching pepper

  1. The blanched berries required only 3-4 days for drying in the sun, thus a great saving in time
  2. The dry pepper has an attractive uniform black colour
  3. Blanching minimises microbial contamination and dust accumulation and thus gives a hygienic product

White Pepper

For making white pepper, harvest only well mature spikes with at least three to five berries ripe. Separate immature ones from the lot. Then keep berries in the corner of a room covered with clean gunny bags for one or two days to hasten ripening of remaining berries. Separate ripe berries from spikes.

Fill berries loosely in clean gunny bags of 50 kg capacity. Keep bags immersed in a canal/stream where clean and uncontaminated water is flowing (the situation can be created by artificial means as well) for 6-9 days till the outer skin of berries decays by fermentation.

Take out the bags and empty the berries to a tank partially filled with water. Knead berries to completely separate out the skin and adhering loose tissue. Clean the corns by washing with fresh water and remove damaged ones. Dry immediately to avoid fungal infection and discolouration. For sun drying, spread thinly the corns on a bamboo mat or cement floor. Repeat heaping and spreading at two hour intervals for uniform drying. Once dried to a moisture level of 11 % may be stored in clean gunny/polythene bags or bins.

 


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Organic cultivation of Garlic

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Varieties

Local, Ooty 1, Farwi, Rajalle Gaddi and Singapore

Season

June – July, October – November

Soil and climate

Well drained, silt or clay loam soils are suitable. It requires relatively cool weather.

Seeds and sowing

The field is prepared to a fine tilth.  Shallow furrows are formed at a spacing of 15 cm. The seed bulbs called as  “ Cloves ” are planted at a spacing of 10 cm.

Seed rate

500 – 600 Kg per hectare

Seed treatment

Seed treatment with 3 % Dasagavya for 30 minutes followed by seed treatment with 5% Pseudomonas fluorescens. Seed treatment with biofertilizers like Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria @ 500 g/ ha using rice gruel should also be done.

Manuring

  1. Green manuring with lupin 15 days before planting should be done to increase the available N status of the soil
  2. Application of well decomposed farmyard manure @ 30 t / ha at the time of land preparation
  3. Application of biodynamic compost @ 5 t / ha at the time of land preparation
  4. At the time of land preparation, application of vermicompost @ 2.5 t / ha should be done
  5. At the time of land preparation, application of biofertilizers like Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria each @ 5 Kg / ha should to be done
  6. During land preparation, sprinkling of horn manure to the soil at the rate of 75 g / ha by dissolving it in 40 litres of water should be done to maintain the soil pH and also to increase the Ca levels of soil

Growth regulators

  1. Spraying 10 % vermiwash 5 times at 15 days interval from one month after sowing
  2. Spraying Cow pat pit @ 5 kg / ha in 100 litres of water on 45th, 60th, and 75th day after sowing to increase the yield
  3. Foliar spraying of horn silica @ 2.5 g / ha by dissolving it in 50 litres of water on 65 dayth after planting to increase the yield and quality of garlic
  4. Foliar spraying of 5% Manchurian tea extract 5 times at 15 days interval from one month after sowing

Irrigation

Garlic is being cultivated both under irrigation and rainfed condition. In the case of irrigated crop, the first irrigation should be given the day after planting and thereafter once in 3 days, depending on the rain.

After cultivation

Once in a month hoeing and weeding should be given so that the field should be kept weed free. At the time of each weedig and hoeing it should be earthed up so that the developing bulbs will not be exposed to the sun.

Plant protection
Pests
Thrips

  1. Spray neem oil 3 %
  2. Spraying of 10% nettle leaf extract on 45th, 60th and 75th day after planting
  3. Foliar spray of 10 % Garlic- chilli extract

White grubs

  1. Summer ploughing to expose the pupae and adults
  2. Install light traps between 7 pm and 9 pm in April – May months
  3. Hand pick the adult beetles in the morning
  4. Hand pick the 3rd instar grub during July – August
  5. Application of Metarrhizium anisopliae @ 20 kg/ha at the time of land preparation

Diseases
Blight

Spraying Agni Hotra ash (200 g Agni Hotra ash soaked in 1 liter cow urine for 15 days and diluted in 10 litres of water before spraying) 3 times at one month interval from one month after planting

Soil borne diseases

  1. Application of Trichoderma viride @ 5kg/ha
  2. Application of Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 5 kg/ha

Harvest

When the garlic is ready for harvest, in the beginning the leaves will turn to yellow and later on, the leaves will completely dry. At this stage the bulbs are pulled by hand individually and heaped. Then the leaf sheath is cut close to the bulb having a length of one to two centimeters. The roots are also trimmed. Then it is dried in the sun thoroughly for a week and graded depending upon the size and weight.

Yield

10 – 15 tonnes per hectare.

 


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Organic cultivation of Carrot

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Varieties

Hills: Ooty-1, Early Nantes and New Koroda
Plains: India Gold, Pusa Kesar and Half Long Danvers

Soil

Carrot is a cool season crop and when grown at 15°C to 20°C will develop a good colour. The carrot crop needs deep loose loamy soil. It requires a pH ranging from 6.0 to 7.0 for higher production.

Season

Hills: At elevation above 1500 metres, Carrot can be grown throughout the year under assured irrigation. At elevations between 1000 - 1500 metres, Carrot can be grown in July - February. 
Plains: August.

Seed rate

4 kg/ha

Spacing

Mark the rows with spacing of 25 - 30 cm apart. Sow the seeds mixed with sand (one part of seed with 4 parts of sand).

Thinning

Hills: 10 cm between plants
Plains: 5 cm between plants

Preparation of field

Hills: Prepare the land to a fine tilth and form raised beds of 15 cm height, one metre breadth and convenient length.
Plains: Two ploughings are given and ridges and furrows are formed at 30 cm spacing.

Seed treatment

  1. Seed treatment with cow pat pit @ 3 g in 1 litre of water for 24 hours
  2. Seed treatment with 5% Trichoderma viride
  3. Seedling root dip with 5% Pseudomonas fluorescens before transplanting

Irrigation

Irrigation should be given once in five days. During drought period, after giving irrigation in the evening, beds should be covered with wet gunny bags. This prevent excessive water loss during sunny days. Germination of the seeds is also improved.

Application of fertilizers

  1. Green manuring with lupin 60 days before planting
  2. Sprinkling horn manure to the soil at the time of land preparation @ 75g/ha by dissolving it in 40 litres of water
  3. Application of well decomposed farm yard manure @ 50 t/ha at the time of land preparation
  4. Application of biodynamic compost @ 5 t/ha at the time of land preparation
  5. Application of vermicompost @ 5 t/ha at the time of land preparation
  6. Application of neem cake @ 1250 kg/ha at the time of land preparation
  7. Application of biofertilizers, Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria @ 25 kg each/ha at the time of land preparation
  8. Spraying cow pat pit @ 5 kg/ha in 100 litres of water on 45th, 60th and 75th day after planting

After cultivation

First weeding is to be done on 15th day. Thinning and earthing up should be given on 30th day.

Growth regulators

  1. Foliar spraying of panchagavya @ 3 per cent at 10 days interval from 1st month after sowing
  2. Spraying 10% vermiwash 5 times at 15 days interval from one month after sowing
  3. Foliar spray of horn silica @ 2.5 g/ha in 50 litres of water on 65th day after sowing to increase the yield and quality of the carrot roots

Plant protection
Pests

Carrot is not much affected by pests.

Root knot nematode

  1. Application of neem cake @ 1 ton/haat the time of sowing to control root knot nematode, Meloidogyne spp
  2. Growing carrot once in 3 years by following crop rotation
  3. Growing marigold once in 2 years
  4. Aplication of Paecilomyces lilacinus @ 10 kg/ha before sowing seeds

Diseases
Leaf spot

  1. Foliar spray of 5% Manchurian tea filtrates 3 times at one month interval from one month after sowing/planting.
  2. Foliar spray of 3% Dasagavya at 10 days interval from 1st month after planting.

Soil borne diseases

  1. Application of Trichoderma viride @ 5 kg/ha at the time of land preparation.
  2. Application of Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 5 kg/ha at the time of land preparation.

Yield

25 - 30 t/ha in 100 - 120 days.

 


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Organic Cultivation of Cabbage

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Varieties

Hills       : Quisto
Plains    : Golden Acre, Maha Rani

Soil

It is commonly cultivated in cool moist climate. It is grown as a winter crop in plains. It is grown in varied types of soils ranging from sandy loam to clay. It requires a pH ranging from 5.5 to 6.5 for higher production.

Season of sowing

Hills       : January - February, July - August, September- October
Plains    : August - November

Seed rate : 650 g/ha

Nursery

100 sq mt nursery area/ha is required. Raised beds of 15 cm height, 1m breadth and convenient length are formed. 2 kg FYM, 200g vermicompost, 40g VAM, 200g each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria should be applied per sq mt. Sow the seeds at 10 cm spacing between rows in raised seed beds. Transplant 40 -45 days old seedlings at a spacing of 45 cm. Avoid land infected with 'club root disease'.

Seed treatment

  • Seed treatment with cow pat pit @ 3 g in 1 litre of water for 24 hours
  • Seed treatment with 5% Trichoderma viride
  • Seedling root dip with 5% Pseudomonas fluorescens before transplanting for the management of club root disease

Preparation of field

Bring the soil to a fine tilth. Pits should be taken up at a spacing of 40 cm either way in hills. Ridges and furrows are formed at 45 cm apart in plains.

Spacing

Hills       :  40 x 40 cm
Plains    :  45 x 30 cm

Irrigation

Provide continuous supply of moisture.

Application of fertilizers

  • Green manuring with lupin 60 days before planting
  • Sprinkling of horn manure to the soil at the time of land preparation @ 75 g/ha by dissolving it in 40 litres of water
  • Application of well decomposed farm yard manure @ 50 t/ha at the time of land preparation
  • Application of biodynamic compost @ 5 t/ha at the time of land preparation
  • Application of vermicompost @ 5 t/ha at the time of land preparation
  • Application of neem cake @ 1250 kg/ha at the time of land preparation
  • Application of biofertilizers, Azospirillum and Phsophobacteria @ 25 kg each/ha at the time of land preparation
  • Spraying cow pat pit @ 5 kg/ha in 100 litres of water on 45th, 60th and 75th day after planting

After cultivation

Deep hoeing should be avoided, as the cabbage roots are surface feeders.

Growth regulators

  • Foliar spraying of panchagavya @ 3 per cent at 10 days interval from 1st month after planting
  • Spraying 10% vermiwash 5 times at 15 days interval from one month after planting
  • Foliar spray of horn silica @ 2.5 g/ha in 50 litres of water on 65th day after planting to increase the yield and quality of cabbage head

Plant protection
Pests
Cut worms

  • Install light trap during summer to attract adult moths
  • Install sprinkler irrigation system and irrigate the field in day time to expose the larvae for predation by birds
  • Use of pyrethrum bait prepared out of pyrethrum flowers, wheat bran and jaggery (2:1:1)

Aphids

  • Spray neem oil 3 %
  • Spraying of 10% nettle leaf extract on 45th, 60th and 75th day after planting

Diamond backmoth

  • Grow mustard as intercrop at 20:1 ratio to attract diamond back moths for oviposition
  • Install pheromone traps @ 12 numbers/ha
  • Spray Bacillus thuringiensis @ 2 g/lit at primordial stage
  • Spray NSKE 5 % after primordial stage
  • Release parasite Diadegma semiclausum @ 50,000/ha, 60 days after planting
  • Foliar spraying of 10% garlic - chilli extract 3 times on 45th, 60th and 75th day after planting

Diseases
Club root

  • Select disease free seeds/seedlings
  • Seed treatment @ 10 g/ kg of seeds or soil application @2.5 kg/ha or seedling dip in solution of 5g/lit withPseudomonas fluorescens
  • Follow crop rotation
  • Crucifers should be avoided for three years
  • Application of dolomite @ 10 kg/ha should be done to increase the pH of the soil. This creates unfavourable condition for the pathogen

Leaf spot

  • Foliar spray of 5 % Manchurian tea filtrate 3 times at one month interval from one month after sowing/planting
  • Foliar spray of 3% Dasagavya at 10 days interval from 1st month after planting
  • Seeds should be soaked in hot water (50oC) for 30 minutes, dried and then sown.

Leaf Blight

Spraying Agni Hotra ash (200 g Agni Hotra ash soaked in 1 liter cow urine for 15 days and diluted in 10 liters of water before spraying) 3 times at one month interval from one month after sowing/planting.

Black rot

  • Dip the seeds in 100 ppm Streptocycline for 30 minutes
  • Two sprays with Streptomycin 100 ppm after planting and at head formation

Soil borne diseases

  • Application of Trichoderma viride @ 5 kg/ha at the time of land preparation
  • Application of Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 5 kg/ha at the time of land preparation

Yield

Hills      : 70 - 80 t/ha in 150 days
Plains   : 25 - 35 t/ha in 120 days

 


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Organic Cultivation of Potato

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Organic potato production generally fits into a planned rotation on an organic farm. It is possible for a specialist potato farmer to grow organic potatoes on an organic farm. All other organic standards will still need to be implemented and the farmer will have to register with a certification body. It may also be possible to have a single field in organic crop production, providing it operates a suitable planned rotation, and organic potatoes can be adequately isolated from any other potatoes grown on the farm. Organic potato production is of interest to many farmers as the crop:

  • Is in demand from consumers
  • Can be profitable
  • Can be a starting point for a break crop from grass in the rotation
  • Requires cultivation which help control weeds

Challenges of organic potatoes

Organic potato production has a number of challenges that must be tackled:

  • Providing adequate nutrients
  • Preventing potato blight
  • Weed control

Organic producers have to rely on alternative approaches rather than artificial fertilizers and synthetic chemical herbicides and fungicides.

Cultural practices

Soil

The soil should be friable, porous and well drained. The optimum pH range is 4.8 to 5.4. It is a cool weather crop. Potato is mostly grown as a rainfed crop. It is cultivated in regions receiving a rainfall of 1200 – 2000 mm per annum.

Season and planting

Hills

Summer

:

March – April

Autumn

:

August – September

Irrigated

:

January – February

Plains

October – November

Propagation

Use disease free, well sprouted seeds weighing 40 – 50 grams. Plant the tubers at 20 cm apart. Seed rate is 3000 – 3500 kg/ha.

Selecting potato varieties

In selecting varieties for organic production there are two simple rules:

  • Grow varieties suited to organic production
  • Grow varieties which best suit the intended market as with all organic produce, grow what will sell, not what you want to sell

Kufri Swarna, Kufri Giriraj and Kufri Chipsona- II are suited for organic farming since they are resistant to blight and nematode.

Preparation of field

Prepare the land to fine tilth. In hills provide an inward slope of 1.40 in the terraces. Provide drainage channel along the inner edge of the terrace. Form ridges and furrows with a spacing of 45 cm between the ridges either by hand hoe or ridger.

Irrigation

Irrigate the crop 10 days after planting. Subsequently irrigation should be given once in a week.

Manuring

  • Green manuring with lupin 60 days before planting
  • Sprinkling horn manure to the soil @ 75 g/ha by dissolving it in 40 litres of water at the time of land preparation
  • Application of well decomposed farm yard manure @ 50 t/ha at the time of land preparation
  • Application of biodynamic compost @ 5 t/ha at the time of land preparation
  • Application of vermicompost @ 5 t/ha at the time of land preparation
  • Application of neem cake @ 1250 kg/ha at the time of land preparation
  • Application of biofertilizers like Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria @ 25 kg each/ha at the time of land preparation
  • Spraying cow pat pit @ 5 kg/ha in 100 liters of water on 45th, 60th and 75th day after planting
  • To increase the pH of the soil, application of dolomite @ 10 tonnes/ha should be done

After cultivation

The critical period of weed competition is up to 60 days and it is essential to keep the field weed free during that period. Take up the first hoeing on 45th day without disturbing stolons. Second hoeing and earthing up should be done at 60th day. As no herbicides are permitted, weed control is carried out by:

  • Choosing fields with no major weed problems
  • Flame weeding of weed seedlings before the potato tops emerge – this can be expensive
  • Mechanical weed control just before tops meet between rows
  • Limited hand weeding of any large invasive weeds

Growth regulators

  • Foliar spraying of panchagavya @ 3 per cent at 10 days interval from 1st month after sowing
  • Spraying 10% vermiwash 5 times at 15 days interval from one month after sowing
  • Foliar spray of horn silica @ 2.5 g/ha in 50 litres of water on 65th day after sowing

Plant protection

Pests

Aphids

  • Foliar spray of 10% nettle leaf extract on 45th, 60th and 75th day after sowing
  • Foliar spray of 10% garlic- chilli extract on 45th, 60th and 75th day after sowing
  • Foliar spray of 3% neem oil

Cutworms

  • Install light trap during summer to attract adult moths
  • Install sprinkler irrigation system and irrigate the field in day time to expose the larvae for predation by birds
  • Application of pyrethrum bait in soil

White grubs

  • Summer ploughing to expose the pupae and adults
  • Install light traps between 7 pm and 9 pm in April – May months
  • Hand pick the adult beetles in the morning
  • Hand pick the 3rd instar grub during July – August
  • Application of Metarrhizium anisopliae @ 20 kg/ha at the time of land preparation

Potato tuber moth

  • Avoid shallow planting of tubers. Plant the tubers at 10 – 15 cm depth
  • Install pheromone traps @ 20 numbers per hectare
  • Earth up at 60 days after planting to avoid potato tuber moth egg laying in the exposed tubers
  • To control foliar damage, spray 5% neem seed kernel extract
  • Keep pheromone traps in godowns
  • In godowns cover the upper surface of potato with Lantana or Eupatorium branches to repel ovipositing moths

Diseases

Potato blight

Potato blight cannot be cured and particularly in an organic situation, avoidance is definitely the best policy.

  • Blight is not generally a problem with early harvested, early varieties
  • Plant early varieties if suitable/possible
  • Plant healthy, blight free seed
  • Select varieties with high blight resistance
  • Listen for and pay attention to blight warnings
  • If the blight pressure is high apply a permitted fungicide
  • Remove ground creepers which serve as a source of infection
  • Spraying Agni Hotra ash (200 g Agni Hotra ash soaked in 1 liter cow urine for 15 days and diluted in 10 litres of water before spraying) 3 times at one month interval from one month after planting

Brown rot

  • Select disease free seeds
  • Give proper drainage facilities
  • Remove and destroy the affected plants

Virus diseases

  • Use virus free potato tubers
  • Rogue the virus affected plants regularly
  • Control the aphid vectors by spraying 10% nettle leaf extract on 45th, 60th and 75th day after planting

Nematodes

  • Avoid growing potato year after year in the same field
  • Follow rotation of crop with vegetables and green manure
  • For cyst nematode, a resistant variety called Kufri Swarna can be grown
  • Application of Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 kg/ha can be done
  • Sow mustard as intercrop at the time of potato planting and harvest the mustard greens on 45th day for the control of potato cyst nematode

Haulm removal

Only physical means of haulm removal are permitted. These include:
a) Flailing (haulm chopping)
b) Haulm pulling
c) Flaming 
Chemical methods of desiccation or application of sulphuric acid are not permitted.

Storage

Normal methods of storage apply to organic potatoes however,

  • Adequate isolation from non organic potatoes will be required to avoid substitution or contamination. This may require visibly identifiable varieties only.
  • Sprout suppressants and fungicides are not permitted in store.

Yield

15 – 20 t/ha in duration of 120 days.

 


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