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Aloe Vera

Aloe Vera health benefit

Also called "the elixir of youth" by the Russians,"the herb of immortality" by the old Egyptians or

Saturday, 23 April 2011 Comments

Aparjit

Aparajita (Clitoria tern

Aparajita has several synonyms in Ayurvedic scriptures like gokarnika, ardrakarni, girikarnika, supu

Saturday, 23 April 2011 Comments

Arecanut

Arecanut

Image - Arecanut

PlantCharacteristics The arecanut palms grow under a variety of climatic and so

Monday, 14 March 2011 Comments

Ash Gourd

ASH GOURD (Benincasa his

Image - ASH GOURD (Benincasa his

PlantCharacteristics It is annual vine trailing on the soil surface. It is also k

Monday, 14 March 2011 Comments

Crops & Vegetables

CAULIFLOWER (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis)

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PlantCharacteristics

Cauliflower is a winter vegetable belonging to the family Brassicaceae. It is mainly cultivated for its white tender head called 'curd'. It is a rich source of protein vitamin A and C, minerals like potassium, sodium, iron, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium.

Varieties

Pusa Early Synthetic, Himani, Swathi, Pusa Deepali, Early Patna, 74-6-C.

SeedsAndCultivation

Cauliflower can be grown during winter in high ranges. Well-drained sandy loam to clay loam soils are suited for the crop.

Since it is a cool season crop, sowing is to be done from Aug-Nov. Seed rate is 600-750 g/ha. Seeds are to be sown in nursery beds. Three to five week old seedlings are used for transplanting. Field is prepared by three or four ploughings. Seedlings are transplanted at a spacing of 60 x 45 cm.
In order to produce large curds, earth up the plant one month after transplanting.
Mulching with polythene increases the yield. Paddy husk can also be used as mulch where as straw mulch is not good.
Blanching is an important operation in cauliflower to get good quality curd. Curds are covered and tied with leaves to protect the heads from sun scorch and yellowing preventing the loss of flavour and attractiveness.The duration of blanching should not exceed 3-5 days in hot weather and 8-10 days in cool weather.

WaterManagement

A continuous supply of moisture is necessary for proper development of curds.

NutrientManagement

Apply FYM or compost @ 25 t/ha and fertilizers @ 150:100:125 N:P2O5:K2O kg/ha. Apply full dose of P2O5 and half dose of N and K2O before transplanting and remaining N and K one month after transplanting.

WeedManagement


Very shallow hoeing should be dne to remove the weeds and to loosen the soil for better aeration.

PestManagement

Cabbage aphid,Diamond back moth and cut worms are the major pests. Spraying malathion at 0.1 per cent will control the damage. Diamond back moth is another major pest. IPM involving a trap crop, release of a parasitoid and application of neem seed kernel extract is recommended by IIHR against this pest. Bold seeded Indian mustard is the recommended trap crop. Spraying 4 per cent neem seed kernel extract once every three weeks is recommended. The parasitoid, Diadegma semiclausum may be released 10-15 days before or after neem seed kernel extract spraying and the number of releases have to be decided based on the degree of infestation.

DiseaseManagement

Damping off,Phytophthora root rot, leaf spot and blight are the major fungal diseases affecting the cauliflower. To control the fungal diseases, treat seeds with ceresan or bavistin @2 g per kg of seed. Drench nursery beds with captan 0.1 per cent before sowing. Follow crop rotation and ensure good drainage.

Harvesting

Cauliflower curds are harvested periodically before flower opening. Other wise flower stalks elongate and loose curds are formed.

AverageYield

Average yield of curd ranges between 20 and 35 tons per hectare.

 


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CARROT (Daucus carota)

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PlantCharacteristics

Carrot belongs to the family Umbelliferae. It is a cool season root crop. It is rich in iron and vitamins like Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Ascorbic acid and Vitamin A.

Varieties

Pusa Kesar, Nantes, Pusa Meghali.

 

SeedsAndCultivation


Carrot can be grown in high ranges from August to January. Well-drained sandy loam soil is best suited for the crop.

Seed rate is 5-6 kg/ha. It is usually sown on ridges to facilitate good root production. Ridges of about 20 cm height are made 45 cm apart and seeds sown 10 cm apart on the rows. The seed is mixed with fine sand and sown in rows by hand and covered with soil to make it firm around it.
Uproot excess seedlings (thinning) three weeks after sowing leaving a plant to plant spacing of 10 cm to facilitate better tuber growth.

WaterManagement

It is necessary that enough soil moisture is available to help uniform seed germination and growth of plant. Because of the deep root forming nature, the crop requires continuous moisture in the soil.

NutrientManagement

Apply 25 t/ha FYM before sowing and a fertilizer dose of 37.5 kg N, 62.5 kg P2O5 and 50 kg K2O / ha as basal. Topdressing with 37.5 kg N / ha may be done one month after sowing.

WeedManagement


Weeding should be done at regular intervals to keep down the weeds. Shallow hoeing is necessary to facilitate root growth. When the root starts growing, earthing up should be done.

PestManagement

Carrot fly, wireworm and aphids are the major pests causing damage to the crop. For control, soil treatment with insecticides such as Bromophos or Diazinon is recommended.

DiseaseManagement

Cercospora leaf blight, Bacterial blight and softrot are the major diseases. For control of fungal diseases proper drainage should be provided. Hot water treatment of seeds at 50oCfor 15 minutes is also suggested as a prophylactic measure. Spraying of Indofil M-45 or Copper oxychloride @ 2.5 g per litre of water is also effective.

Harvesting

Harvesting is done 70-85 days after sowing.Light irrigation is provided just before harvest and the tubers are pulled out of soil without damage.

AverageYield

 

20-25 tons per hectare.

 


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PUMPKIN (Cucurbita moschata)

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PlantCharacteristics

Pumpkin is a direct sown cucurbit. It requires a deep well drained loamy soil.

Varieties

Ambili, Suvarna and Saras.

SeedsAndCultivation

Preparation of land

Pits of 60 cm diameter and 30-45 cm depth are taken at a spacing of 4.5 x 2.0 m. Well rotten FYM and fertilizers are mixed with topsoil in the pit.

Season
Pumpkin can be successfully grown during January-March and September-December. For the rainfed crop, sowing can also be started after the receipt of the first few showers during May-June.

Seed Rate
1.0 to 1.5 kg/ha

Spacing
3.0 m x 2.0 m

Sowing
Four of five seeds are sown per pit. Remove unhealthy plants after 2 weeks and retain three plants per pit.For trailing, spread dried twigs on the ground.

WaterManagement

During the initial stages of growth, irrigate at an interval of three or four days. Irrigate on alternate days during flowering and fruiting periods.

NutrientManagement

Apply FYM @ 20-25 t/ha as basal dose along with half dose of N (35 kg) and full dose of P2O5 (25 kg) and K2O (25 kg). The remaining dose of N (35 kg) can be applied in two equal split doses at the time of vining and at the time of full blooming.

WeedManagement

Conduct weeding and raking of the soil at the time of fertilizer application. Earthing up may be done during rainy season.

PestManagement

Fruit flies, epilachna beetle and red pumpkin beetle are important pests affecting pumpkin. They can be controlled as in case of bitter gourd.

DiseaseManagement

Downy mildew, powdery mildew and mosaic are important diseases affecting pumpkin. 
Harvesting can be done only after 10 days (at least) of insecticide / fungicide application. The fruits should be washed thoroughly in water before cooking.

Harvesting

Harvest starts from 85-90 days after sowing. When fully mature, the colour of the fruit skin turns from green to brown and the fruit stalk separate from the vine.

 

AverageYield

The yield varies from 20-30 tonnes/ha.

 


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BEET ROOT (Beta vulgaris)

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PlantCharacteristics

Beet root belongs to the Family Chenopodiaceaea. Roots are good source of sugar. Young tender leaves can be used as greens.

Varieties

Detroit Dark Red and Imperator.

SeedsAndCultivation

Beet root can be grown in high ranges from August to January. Well-drained sandy loam soils are best suited for the crop. 
Seed rate is 7 to 8 kg/ha. It is usually grown on ridges to facilitate good root production. Ridges of about 20 cm height are formed 45 cm apart and seeds sown 15-20 cm apart on the rows. The seeds are mixed with fine sand and placed in rows by hand and covered with soil to make it firm around it.Thinning the population may be done as in carrot. Shallow hoeing is necessary to facilitate root growth. When the root starts growing, earthing up should be done.

WaterManagement

It is necessary that enough soil moisture is available to help uniform seed germination and growth of plant. The crop requires about 300 mm of water which can be given with 5-7 irrigations.

NutrientManagement

Apply FYM 20 t/ha as basal. N:P2O5:K2O 75:37.5:37.5 kg/ha is recommended. Full dose of P2O5 and K2O and half dose of N are applied as basal. Remaining half dose of nitrogen is applied as topdressing when the plant starts growing vigorously.

WeedManagement


Weeding should be done at regular intervals to keep down the weeds.

PestManagement

Beet leaf miner, flea beetle and beet webworm are the major pests. For controlling the pests, spraying with malathion at 0.1 per cent or rogor at 0.03 per cent is effective.

DiseaseManagement

Damping off, downy mildew, sclerotium rot and beet yellow are important diseases affecting the crop. To control these diseases seed treatment with ceresan @ 2g/kg of seed and spraying the crop with indofil Z-78 @0.2 per cent are recommended.

Harvesting

Roots are harvested 8- 10 weeks after planting. The entire plants are uprooted, the tops removed and roots separated.

AverageYield

 

The yield of roots is about 25-30 tons/ha.

 


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CABBAGE (assica oleracea var. capitata)

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PlantCharacteristics

Cabbage is a hardy cool season annual vegetable. It behaves like a biennial when grown for seed production. 'Head' consisting of thick leaves overlapping tightly on growing bud is the economic part. Glucoside 'sinigrin' is the flavour principle in Cabbage. It belongs to the family assicaceae.

Varieties

September, Pusa Drum Head, Golden Acre, Kaveri, Ganga, Sri Ganesh and Pride of India.

SeedsAndCultivation

Cabbage can be grown in high ranges during winter season. Well-drained sandy loam to clay loam soil is suited for this crop. Since it is a cool season crop, sowing is done from August-November. Seed rate is 500-750 g/ha. Seeds are to be sown in nursery beds. Three to five weeks old seedlings are used for transplanting. Field is prepared by three or four ploughings. Seedlings are transplanted at a spacing of 45 x 45 cm.

WaterManagement

A continuous supply of moisture is necessary for proper development of heads.

NutrientManagement

Apply 25 t/ha FYM or compost. Fertilizer dose is N:P2O5:K2O 150:100:125 kg/ha. Apply full dose of P2O5 and half dose of N and K2O before transplanting. Apply remaining half dose one month after transplanting.

WeedManagement

Very shallow hoeing should be done to remove weeds and to make the soil better aerated. In order to produce large heads, earth up plants one month after transplanting.

PestManagement

White butterfly, rootfly and aphids are major pests of cabbage. Spraying malathion at 0.1 per cent will control the damage. Diamond back moth is another major pest. IPM involving a trap crop, release of a parasitoid and application of neem seed kernel extract is recommended by IIHR against this pest. Bold seeded Indian mustard is the recommended trap crop. Spraying 4 per cent neem seed kernel extract once every three weeks is recommended. The parasitoid, Diadegma semiclausum may be released 10-15 days before or after neem seed kernel extract spraying and the number of releases have to be decided based on the degree of infestation.

DiseaseManagement

Black rot, Club rot, Black leg and cabbage yellows are the common diseases. Soaking the seeds in water at 50oC for 25-30 minutes will kill the disease causing organisms. Crop rotation involving a non-cruciferous vegetable, ensuring good drainage, removal and destruction of affected plants etc. are also suggested.

Harvesting

The heads are harvested at full maturity and when they are firm from December to April in the plains and in June-July in Hills (summer crop). The entire plant is uprooted and the heads separated.

AverageYield

20-25 tons/ha..

 


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