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Aloe Vera

Aloe Vera health benefit

Also called "the elixir of youth" by the Russians,"the herb of immortality" by the old Egyptians or

Saturday, 23 April 2011 Comments

Aparjit

Aparajita (Clitoria tern

Aparajita has several synonyms in Ayurvedic scriptures like gokarnika, ardrakarni, girikarnika, supu

Saturday, 23 April 2011 Comments

Arecanut


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Arecanut

Image - Arecanut

PlantCharacteristics The arecanut palms grow under a variety of climatic and so

Monday, 14 March 2011 Comments

Ash Gourd

ASH GOURD (Benincasa his

Image - ASH GOURD (Benincasa his

PlantCharacteristics It is annual vine trailing on the soil surface. It is also k

Monday, 14 March 2011 Comments

Crops & Vegetables

CHILLI (Capsicum annuum)

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PlantCharacteristics

It is a short-lived perennial herb but is cultivated as an annual herb. The leaves are oblong and glabrous. The flowers are solitary, rarely in pairs, pure white to bluish white, very rarely violet in colour. The berries are green, maturing into yellow, orange to red grading into brown or purple, pendent, rarely erect, very variable in size (up to 20 cm long and 10 cm in dia.), shape and pungency and sometimes lobed. The seeds are white or cream to yellow, thin, almost circular, having long placental connections.

Varieties

High yielding varieties: Jwalasakhi, Jwalamukhi, Jwala, Pant C-1, K-2
Bacterial wilt resistant varieties: Manjari, Ujwala, Anugraha

SeedsAndCultivation

Seed rate: 1.0 kg/ha
Raising seedlings
Chilli is a transplanted crop. Seeds are sown in the nursery and one-month-old seedlings are transplanted to the main field. For sowing the seeds, raised seed-beds of 90 to 100 cm width and of convenient length are prepared to which well decomposed organic matter has been incorporated. After sowing the seeds, mulch with green leaves and irrigate with a rose-can daily in the morning. Remove the mulch immediately after germination of the seeds. Restrict irrigation one week before transplanting and irrigate heavily on the previous day of transplanting.
Time of planting
For rainfed crop, transplant the seedlings during May-June before the onset of southwest monsoon. Planting can also be done during September-October for irrigated crop.
Land preparation and transplanting
Land is prepared to a fine tilth by thorough ploughing / digging. Well rotten organic manure is incorporated in the soil and seedlings are transplanted in shallow trenches / pits during May or on ridges / level lands during rainy season. Transplanted seedlings may also be given temporary shade for three to four days during summer. 
Spacing
Transplant less spreading varieties like Swetha and Surya at 60 x 60 cm. For spreading varieties Haritha and Neelima, provide wider spacing of 75-90 x 60 cm.

WaterManagement

Irrigate at three or four days interval during summer.

NutrientManagement

Apply well rotten FYM / compost @ 20-25 t/ha at the time of land preparation and mix well with the soil.
A fertilizer dose of 75:40:25 kg N:P2O5: K2O / ha may be given. Half the dose of nitrogen, full phosphorus and half of potash may be applied as basal dose before transplanting. One fourth of nitrogen and half of potash may be applied 20-30 days after planting. The remaining quantities may be applied two months after planting.
Application of 75:25:25 kg N:P2O5:K2O / ha is optimum for getting maximum yield of fruits for the variety Swetha in the reclaimed alluvial soils of Kuttanad. However, the economic optimum dose was found to be 60:20:25 kg of N:P2O5:K2O / ha.

WeedManagement

Weeding followed by fertilizer application and earthing up may be done one and two months after transplanting. 
Stake the plants if necessary.

PestManagement

Spray quinalphos 0.025% for control of mealy bugs and lace wings. Dimethoate at 0.05% is effective for controlling mites, aphids and other sucking insects.

DiseaseManagement

For avoiding damping off of the seedlings in the nursery, sow the seeds as thin as possible in raised beds prepared in the open area during summer months. Spray nursery and main field with 1% Bordeaux mixture at monthly intervals during rainy season. Uproot and destroy the plants affected by bacterial wilt and mosaic.
Cultivate resistant varieties like Manjari, Ujwala and Anugraha in bacterial wilt prone areas.

Harvesting

Fruits can be harvested from 75 days after transplanting. For dry chilly, fully ripe pods have to be harvested and dried in sun.For green chilly, fully matured green fruits have to be harvested.

AverageYield

Green chilli yield is about 8-10 tonnes/ha.
Dry chilli yield would be 1800 -2200 kg/ha.

 


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BRINJAL (Solanum melongena)

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PlantCharacteristics

Brinjal is a tropical vegetable believed to be a native of India. The varieties of Solanum melongena L. display a wide range of fruit shapes and colors, ranging from oval or egg-shaped to long club-shaped; and from white, yellow, green through degrees of purple pigmentation to almost black. Eggplant is a warm season crop. It requires a long and warm growing season for successful production. It is more susceptible to lower temperatures than tomato and pepper. A day temperature of 25-32 °C and a night temperature of 21-27 °C are ideal for plant growth and fruit development. Eggplant can be grown on different kinds of soil but does best on well-drained silt loams or clay loams with a pH of 5.5-6.5. The flowers are borne solitarily or in clusters of two or more. In the solitary flowering type, flower drop is very low, whereas in the clustered flowering type, flower drop may be as high as 80%. The flower is normally perfect, having functional male (anthers) and female (pistil) parts. It has been reported that long styled flowers (defined as the stigma is either above or on the same level as the stamen) are always more appreciable in number than short-styled flowers (defined as the stigma is below the stamen). Fruit set rates are higher for long-styled flowers compared with short-styled flowers

Varieties

Surya, Swetha and Haritha (bacterial wilt resistant open pollinated varieties), Neelima (bacterial wilt resistant F1 hybrid), Pusa Purple Cluster.

SeedsAndCultivation

Seed rate: 370-500 g/ha
Raising seedlings
Brinjal is a transplanted vegetable. Seeds are sown in the nursery and one-month-old seedlings are transplanted to the main field. For sowing the seeds, raised seed beds of 90 to 100 cm width and convenient length are prepared in open space with fertile topsoil to which well decomposed organic matter has been incorporated. After sowing the seeds, mulch with green leaves and irrigate with a rose-can daily in the morning. Remove the mulch immediately after germination of the seeds. Restrict irrigation one week before transplanting and irrigate heavily on the previous day of transplanting.
Time of planting
For rainfed crop, transplant the seedlings during May-June before the onset of southwest monsoon. Planting can also be done during September-October for irrigated crop.
Land preparation and transplanting
Land is prepared to a fine tilth by thorough ploughing or digging. Well rotten organic manure is incorporated in the soil and seedlings are transplanted in shallow trenches / pits during May or on ridges / levelled lands during rainy season. Transplanted seedlings may be given temporary shade for 3-4 days during summer.
Spacing
Transplant less spreading varieties like Swetha and Surya at 60 x 60 cm. For spreading varieties Haritha and Neelima, provide wider spacing of 75-90 x 60 cm.

 

WaterManagement

Irrigate at three or four days interval during summer.

NutrientManagement

Apply well rotten FYM / compost @ 20-25 t/ha at the time of land preparation and mix well with the soil.
A fertilizer dose of 75:40:25 kg N:P2O5: K2O / ha may be given. Half the dose of nitrogen, full phosphorus and half of potash may be applied as basal dose before transplanting. One fourth of nitrogen and half of potash may be applied 20-30 days after planting. The remaining quantities may be applied two months after planting.
Application of 75:25:25 kg N:P2O5:K2O / ha is optimum for getting maximum yield of fruits for the variety Swetha in the reclaimed alluvial soils of Kuttanad. However, the economic optimum dose was found to be 60:20:25 kg of N:P2O5:K2O / ha.

WeedManagement


Weeding followed by fertilizer application and earthing up may be done one and two months after transplanting. 
Stake the plants if necessary.

PestManagement

Follow mechanical removal and destruction of pest / disease affected portions for control of fruit and shoot borer and Phomopsis fruit rot. Spray carbaryl 0.15% at an interval of 15-20 days to control fruit and shoot borer under large-scale cultivation.
The root knot nematode can be managed by the application of Bacillus macerans or B. circulans 1.2 x 106 cells per m2 in nursery bed two days before sowing (ad hoc recommendation).
For the control of pests, application of granules of carbofuran at the rate of 0.5 kg ai/ha or phorate at the rate of 1 kg ai/ha at seeding followed by need based application of foliar insecticides has been recommended. The application of granules is recommended only at the time of seeding. 
In general, insecticides of plant origin may be used, as far as possible.

DiseaseManagement

For avoiding damping off of the seedlings in the nursery, sow the seeds as thin as possible in the raised beds prepared in the open area during summer months. Uproot plants affected by little leaf and spray insecticides for further control.
Cultivate resistant varieties like Surya, Swetha and Haritha and the hybrid Neelima in bacterial wilt prone areas.

Harvesting

The first harvest starts from 55-60 days after transplanting. Harvest can be done at an interval of 5 days.

AverageYield

 

The yield ranges from 20 -35 tonnes/ha. Depending upon the variety.

 


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HORSE GRAM (Macrotyloma uniflorum)

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PlantCharacteristics


Horse gram can be grown in paddy nurseries after transplantation of the second crop and in palliyal lands after harvest of first crop and uplands during rabi season.

 

Varieties


Co-1 and Pattambi Local

SeedsAndCultivation


Season: September-October
Seed rate: 25-30 kg/ha
Sowing: After land preparation, sow the seeds either dibbled in rows 25 cm apart or by broadcast

NutrientManagement


Lime      500 kg/ha
P2O5     25 kg/ha


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COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata)

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PlantCharacteristics


Cowpea belongs to the family Leguminoseae. It is a twining annual herbaceous plant. The stem is slightly ridged and glabrous. The leaves are trifoliate and alternate.Pods are long and cylindrical.
Cowpea can be grown throughout the year under Kerala conditions. It can be grown as a floor crop in coconut gardens and as an intercrop in tapioca during May-Sept. It can be grown as a pure crop in single-crop and double-crop rice fallows during rabi and summer seasons. Cowpea can be grown in homestead garden throughout the year and in kole lands of Thrissur district during summer where rice crop cannot be raised due to water scarcity.

Season

(1) Cowpea can be grown during any season.
(2) As a rainfed crop, sowing is done in the month of June. The most suitable time is after the first week of June.
(3) During the second crop season (rabi), i.e., September to December, cowpea can be grown as a fringe crop along the rice field bunds. Sowing can be done on either side of bunds on the day of transplanting the paddy crop.
(4) During summer, cowpea can be grown as a pure crop in rice fallows after the harvest of paddy.

Varieties


1. Vegetable type:
(a) Bushy: Bhagyalakshmy, Pusa Barsathi, Pusa Komal. (b) Semitrailing: Kairali, Varun, Anaswara, Kanakamony (PTB-1), Arka Garima. (c) Trailing type: Sharika, Malika, KMV-1, Lola, Vyjayanthi, Manjeri Local, Vyalathur Local, Kurutholapayar.

2. Grain type: C-152, S-488, Pusa Phalguni, P-118, Pusa Do Fasli, Krishnamony (PTB-2), V-240, Amba (V-16), GC-827, CO-3 and Pournami (in summer rice fallows).

3. Dual purpose type: Kanakamony (PTB 1) and New Era

4. As companion crop with tapioca: V-26

5. Floor crop: Gujarat V-118, Cowpea-2

SeedsAndCultivation


Seed rate

For vegetable type
Bush: 20-25 kg/ha
Trailing: 4-5 kg/ha

For grain and dual purpose type
Broadcasting: 60-65 kg/ha
(45 kg for Krishnamony)

Dibbling: 50-60 kg/ha
(40 kg for Krishnamony)

Seed inoculation and pelleting
Cowpea seeds should be inoculated with Rhizobium and pelleted with lime. Rhizobium cultures are available from the Assistant Soil Chemist, Microbiological Laboratory, Soil Testing Centre, Pattambi 679 306, Palakkad District. The strains that are available at Pattambi are the two isolates (No.11 and No.12) developed by the Kerala Agricultural University.

Procedure for seed inoculation
The content of each packet of Rhizobium inoculant is sufficient for seeds to be sown in the area indicated on the packet (250 to 375 g/ha). Use the inoculant only for the specific leguminous crop mentioned on the packet, before the expiry date. Do not expose the Rhizobium culture to direct sunlight or heat. Mix the inoculant uniformly with the seeds by using minimum quantity of water (instead of water, either 2.5% starch solution or kanjivellam of the previous day can be used in order to ensure better stickiness of the inoculant with the treated seed material). Take care to avoid any damage to the seed coat. Dry the inoculated seeds under shade over a clean paper or gunny bag and sow immediately. The Rhizobium culture or the inoculated seeds should not be mixed with chemical fertilizers.

Procedure for lime pelleting

1. Add finely powdered (300 mesh) calcium carbonate to moist fresh Rhizobium treated seeds and mix for 1-3 minutes until each seed is uniformly pelleted. Depending on the seed size, the following quantity of lime will be required.

Small seeds 1.0 kg/10 kg of seed
Medium sized seeds 0.6 kg/10 kg of seed
Large sized seeds 0.5 kg/10 kg of seed

2. Spread out the pelleted seeds on a clean paper to harden. Sow them as soon as possible. However, lime pelleted seeds can be stored up to one week in a cool place prior to sowing.

[Note:
(1) Lime coating is required only for seeds that are to be sown in acid soils.
(2) Ordinary agricultural lime is not good for pelleting because of its larger particle size.
(3) Hydrated lime should not be used for pelleting.
(4) The dry pellet should be firm enough to resist moderate pressure. It should appear dry without loose lime on its surface or in the container.
(5) The lime-pelleted seeds can be mixed with the fertilizer and sown. However, the period of contact between fertilizer and the pelleted seeds should be as short as possible.
(6) Pelleted seeds should not be sown into a dry seedbed.]

Sowing / spacing

Plough the land thoroughly 2-3 times and remove weeds and stubbles. Make channels of 30 cm breadth and 15 cm depth at 2 m apart to drain off excess rainwater. For grain type and dual-purpose type, if dibbling is adopted, spacing of 25 cm between rows and 15 cm between plants is recommended with two seeds per hole. If broadcasting is adopted, the seeds can be sown broadcast over the field and channels drawn after sowing. For bush vegetable type, spacing of 30 cm between rows and 15 cm between plants is suitable. For semi-trailing varieties, provide a spacing of 45 x 30 cm. Trailing varieties can be sown in pits (@ 3 plants / pit) at 2 x 2 m spacing for trailing on pandal or in channels at 1.5 m x 45 cm spacing for trailing on trellis.

WaterManagement


Giving two irrigations is highly beneficial; i.e., at 15 days after sowing and at the time of flowering. Irrigation at the flowering stage induces better flowering and pod set.

NutrientManagement


Manuring

FYM 20 t/ha
Lime 250 kg/ha or dolomite 400 kg/ha
N 20 kg/ha
P2O5 30 kg/ha
K2O 10 kg/ha

Lime may be applied at the time of the first ploughing. Half the quantity of N, whole of phosphorus and potash may be applied at the time of final ploughing. The remaining N may be applied 15-20 days after sowing.

[Note: For vegetable cowpea grown as an intercrop in the reclaimed alluvial soils of Kuttanad, N, P2O5, and K2O at the rate of 10, 20 and 10 kg/ha are recommended. For vegetable cowpea, fertilizers can be applied in several split doses at fortnightly intervals]

 

WeedManagement


Hoeing at the time of application of the second dose of N will give adequate aeration to the soil and help the root system to spread easily. For grain and dual-purpose varieties, decapitation is found to be advantageous as the crop shows trailing tendency. For vegetable types, provide trellis or pandal for trailing.

PestManagement


The fungus Fusarium pallidoroseum can be used for controlling black pea aphid. Bran based fungus can be applied at the rate of 3 kg per 400 m2 immediately after infestation is observed. Only one application is necessary.

Spray malathion (0.05%) or quinalphos (0.03%) for controlling pea aphids.

Spray carbaryl 0.2% or fenthion 0.05% to protect the crop from pod borers. Repeat the application, if infestation persists. Apply the insecticides after harvesting mature pods and pick the pods only 10 days after the application of insecticides.

For protecting cowpea seeds against pests under storage conditions, smear the seeds with groundnut or coconut oil at 1%.

The root-knot nematode and reniform nematode associated with cowpea can be effectively managed by the application of neem and eupatorium leaves @ 15 t/ha, two weeks before sowing.

Spray 1% Bordeaux mixture in early stages to protect the crop from fungal diseases.

For protecting the crop from anthracnose, treat the seeds with carbendazim (0.1%) and spray the crop with Bordeaux mixture 1% or carbendazim 0.1%.

 

Harvesting


Green pods for use as vegetable can be harvested 45-90 days after sowing. Pods should be harvested while tender. For grains, the crop can be harvested in about 90-125 days after sowing.
Cowpea for fodder purpose should be cut when it attains the age of 40-45 days.

Processing


The threshed grains should be dried in sun before storage.

AverageYield


A good crop yields about 1.2-1.5 tons of grain and 5-6 tons of straw per hectare.
Green fodder yield is about 25-35 tons per hectare.


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GREEN GRAM (Vigna radiata)

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PlantCharacteristics


Green Gram belongs to the family Leguminoseae and sub family Papilionaceae. Annual herbaceous plant grows to a height of 30-100 cm. The pods are 6-10 cm long, round, slender with short pubescence and green seeds. The crop is self-fertile and self-pollinated.
The crop is best suited to areas having an annual rainfall of 600-750 mm.it can tolerate drought. A well-drained loamy to sandy-loam soil is best suited. 
Green gram is grown as a pure crop in rice fallows after the harvest of the first or second crop of paddy. It can also be grown as a mixed crop with tapioca, colocasia, yam, and banana or as an intercrop in coconut gardens.

Varieties


Philippines, Madiera, Pusa Baisakhi, NP-24, Co-2, Pusa-8973 (Pusa-8973 is suited to the summer rice fallows of Onattukara; tolerant to pod borer; duration 66 days).

 

SeedsAndCultivation


Seed rate

Pure crop 20-25 kg/ha
Mixed crop 6 kg/ha

Sowing
Plough the land 2-3 times thoroughly and remove weeds and stubbles. Channels, 30 cm broad and 15 cm deep, are drawn at 2 m apart to drain off excess rainwater during kharif season and provide irrigation during summer season. The seeds may be sown broadcast.

WaterManagement


For rainy season crop, drainage is very important.No irrigation should be given when the crop is in the full bloom stage.

NutrientManagement


Manuring

FYM 20 t/ha (as basal)
Lime 250 kg/ha or dolomite 400 kg/ha
N 20 kg/ha
P2O5 30 kg/ha
K2O 30 kg/ha

Lime may be applied at the time of first ploughing. Half the quantity of N and the full quantity of P2O5 and K2O may be applied at the time of last ploughing. The remaining quantity of N (10 kg) can be applied as foliar spray of 2% urea solution in two equal doses on the 15th and 30th day after sowing.

WeedManagement


Two weeding should be given to keep the field free of harmful weeds, first 20-25 days after sowing and second 45 days after sowing.

 

Plant Protection


Apply carbaryl 0.15% suspension, if pests are observed in serious proportions.

Harvesting


Shattering of pods is a great problem. Pick the pods as soon as they mature.

 

AverageYield


1.2-1.5 tons of grains per hectare.


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