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Technology and Science

Organic Foods Reduce Risk of Cancer

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Organic Foods helps in reducing the probability of getting cancer. It sounds unbelievable but this is true and has been scientifically proved over and over again. One may ask how, well it is simple. Organic foods increase the antioxidant level in the body. Antioxidants are essential in eliminating the chances of getting cancer as one grows older. Now, someone might be wondering what antioxidants are and the relationship it has with organic foods. To answer that question, “antioxidants are compounds that may shield cells from the impairment initiated by unstable substances that are known as free radicals. Free radical impairment is the main reason behind the cause of cancer. Antioxidants merge with and cause the free radicals to stabilize and may stop some of the impairment free radicals might then cause” (Source: National Cancer Institute).

With antioxidants understood, one can clearly see why they are important for the human system especially as we grow older and our immune system cannot combat certain bodily reactions. To further open the eyes of people on the benefits of organic foods, it must be observed that traditional foods make use of pesticides, herbicides and hormones which contribute largely to cancer development. Imagine increasing your chances of getting a disease which can kill when eating food which is meant for survival. It is better to prevent than to neglect an impending situation. To stick on the safer side, the population should encourage organic food consumption for good health and in the long run reduction in the death rates. Cancer, “which is any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division” (Source: Princeton University, WordNet) can therefore be easily combated by organic foods. This is simply because the more organic foods a person take the higher the quantity of antioxidants in that person system and this therefore provides a higher percentage of the body’s system in fighting off unstable growths and stabilizing these molecules.

 

 


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An innovation that generates revenue for rural women

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Mr. K. Vivekanandan of Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu) invested Rs.8 lakh and created a 3 HP pin pulverizer for grinding chilli and coriander. "The machine is an ideal revenue generator for rural women who are interested in increasing their domestic income,” says Mr. Vivekanandan.

Most of the existing machines to grind chilli and coriander require high installation costs, and use a lot of power making it unsuitable for rural areas, where power supply may also be undependable.

 

Challenges faced

Mr. Vivekanandan thought he solved 90 per cent of the grinding problem when he developed the machine, and manufactured nearly 100 of them. But to his dismay he found that only 20 pieces found buyers. Some of the buyers returned the machine, because the chilli and coriander did not pass through the filter screen, and created too much dust while grinding.
Work came to a standstill, and did not resume for almost a year.
Mr. Vivekanandan came to know about Villgro (an organization that supports rural entrepreneurs) and he approached them for guidance. The staff at Villgro tapped different resources to work on this problem. Technical expertise first assisted Mr. Vivekanandan in producing a 1 HP, single phase machine, because the machine could not initially run at a speed on 3 HP. (In rural areas the preference is for a one- HP, single-phase machine due to voltage fluctuation).
After several trials they identified the problem of chilli and coriander getting stuck on the screen was not because of their high fibre content, but due to the speed of the rotor. Accordingly, the weight of the machine was reduced, its wall thickness, size, and diameter of the stator and rotor altered to suit rural application.

Cost

Mr. Vivekanandan brought down the cost of the machine to cater to rural needs by focusing on the types and amount of materials used. Each unit is priced at Rs. 11,500 (with motor).

 

 


Source : The Hindu


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Indigenous technologies practiced by farmers

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Agriculture

• Application of buttermilk @ 5 lit./40 Kg seed of pulses viz. lentil, arhar, chickpea to protect the crop from wilt disease in district Chitrakoot.

• Farmers of district Shahjahanpur, broadcast 8 kg common salt to protect the paddy crop from blight disease.

• In districts Allahabad, Saharnapur, Siddharthnagar and Gonda, dry neem leaves and kanja leaves are used by the farmers to store the grain like wheat, rice etc.

• Mixed cropping of arhar & jowar to protect the arhar from wilt disease in district Gonda.

• Planting of marigold after 8-10 lines of tomato or  chilli to protect the crop from mosaic and nematode in Gonda

• The farmers practice putting of twigs in field crops for sitting of owl to control the rats in Sultanpur district.

• Mixed cropping like arhar + urd + til + bajra is practiced in Varanasi and Mirzapur district to protect the crop from wilt.

• Spreading of cooked rice in field crop attract the birds who eat hairy catter pillar also. (Varanasi).

• The farmers of Ghaziabad to control the aphids spray  water in mustard crop.

• Ash dusting is practiced in Zaid vegetables to control the red beetle in most districts of UP.

• Cutting of upper portion of leaves before transplanting of paddy to prevent the attack of stem borer in district Bijnour and Ghaziabad.

• Spray of extract of 1 kg garlic + 250 gm tobacco + 250 gm gur in 20 lit. to control Gandhi bugs in rice in Ghaziabad.

• Farmers practice mixed cropping of onion + sugarcane to control the shoot borer in sugarcane in district Mau.

• Mixed cropping of coriander + chickpea, protects chickpea from pod borer (Raebareily).

• Intercropping of marigold control nematodes in brinjal/tomato. (Raebareily & Varanasi)

• Gram seed treated with heang (Asafoetida) @ 10 gm/10 Kg seed control pod borer & wilt.  Also application of 100 gm mustard Oil per 40 Kg of gram, control wilt disease (Raebareily)

• Soaking of seed in buttermilk, (@ 5 l/40 kg seed) control wilt disease in Pigeonpea and gram in districts Behraich and Shahjahanpur.

• Farmers of Bareilly are using blue bull dung (as repellant) for saving their crops from damage caused by blue bull.  They sprey dung solution around field and border area of crops.

• Solution containing 10 lit. of cow urine + 1.5 Kg gur + 1.5 kg mustard oil kept for ten days in shed, then added 200 lit of water and spread on paddy crop to prevent various diseases & pest in district Bijnour.

• Dusting of ash in singara pond for fast vegetative  growth and to check the disease (district Bijnour)

• Farmers are broadcasting ash to get higher yield of berseem in district Siddharthnagar.

• To develop yellow colour in mango, farmers are using, 1 gm turmeric powder mixed

with 50 gm carbide for 10 kg mango during the process of   ripening in district

Bareily.

• Farmers are applying 8-12 kg common salt per acre with seed to control the wilt in

pulse crops in district Chitrakoot & Shahjahanpur.

• Mixed cropping of coriander with gram and linseed with lentil control the pod borer

& wilt respectively in district Ballia.

• Vegetable seeds are stored by mixing with sawdust of pine in district Lohaghat.

• Ash is used at the time of sowing of potato to minimize the soil borne diseases in

district Lohaghat.

• Inter-cropping of groundnut with bajra in district Budaun controls nematodes.

• Extract of garlic 5 kg + tobacco 250 gm + 500 gm Neem leaf is used by the farmers

of district Budaun to control the yellow mosaic in vegetables.

Livestock Production

• Feeding of bamboo leaves and Gur, after calving of  cows/ buffaloes for quick removal of placenta is followed district  Behraich, Basti, Varanasi and

Siddharthnagar

• Calves are given 20-25 ml Neem Oil for removal of internal parasites in district

Sultanpur.

• Radish leaves (0.5 Kg) are given to animals for deworming purpose in Etah district.

• Oral feeding of chalk powder (50 gm) + boiled rice  water (250 ml.), 4-5 times

control the dysentery problems in animals (Pilibhit district).

• Fermented whey (250 ml) + common salt (50 gm) is used for deworming in calves

(district Pilibhit)

• In case of FMD, mashed leaves of Nehsut is filled in hoof wound to kill maggots in

Basti

• Crushed seed of Palas is used for deworming in animals in Mirzapur district.

• Mastitis in lactating dairy animals is treated by dipping the teats after each milking in 250 ml neem leaf extract, obtained by boiling of 250 gm neem leaves in 1 litre water added with one tea spoonful common salt and mustard oil (Lucknow district)

• Feeding of 500 ml mustard oil before natural service to buffaloes to increase conception rate is followed in district Saharanpur.

• Farmers are using the mixture of soda-bicarb 20 gm, Ajwain 30 gm, Heeng 2 gm, Kala Namak 30 gm in powder form orally to control Tympany successfully (district Bareilly)

• In case of Afara, farmers give a mixture of 100 gm Kala namak + 30 gm heeng + 100 ml Tarpin Oil + 500 ml linseed oil once a day in farm animals in district Rampur. • Oral feeding of separated milk (500 ml), common salt (50 gm) after fermenting 3 days and mixing with 100 gm mustard oil to control  the intestinal worm in dairy animals is practiced by the farmers of Bareilly.

• A solution of bel pulp (stone fruit) with water control the diarrohea in animals.  It is given thrice a day for 3-4 days (Bareilly district)

• To introduce oestrus, pigeon waste is given orally  to heifers for showing heat symptoms clearly in district Bareilly, Siddharthnagar.

• Sesame leaves are fed to animals in case of dysentery in livestock in district Allahabad.

 

 

 

 

 


Source: www.opaals.iitk.ac.in


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General Farm Hygiene:

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Good farm hygiene is the responsibility of all the staff on the farm, make sure that all employees know the farms bio security policy and explain the policy to all visitors. It is necessary to draw up a written Bio security plan for your holding:

    • Operate a foot dip policy between farms, buildings and ensure disinfecting facilities are available for consultants, veterinary surgeons and other visitors.
    • Insist that all staff and visitors use foot dips. Put up signpost if necessary.
    • Keep the milking parlour and associated facilities clean and hygienic at all times.
    • Clean and disinfect buildings after each batch of stock, especially after a disease outbreak.
    • Clean and disinfect vehicles and trailers after transporting stock - however short the journey may be.
    • Wear clean overalls and footwear each day if at all possible.
    • Park visitors vehicle out side the premise. Avoid unnecessary visitors to the farm.

Feed Storage Facilities:

    • Poor feed facilities encourage birds and vermin, which can and do spread disease.
    • Keep feeding stuffs dry and clean.
    • Rotate stocks to ensure that the oldest deliveries are used first.
    • Dispose of old or contaminated feed carefully and securely.
    • Clean out feed bins, water troughs regularly (wash out and disinfect)
    • Ensure no livestock have access to feed storage facilities.
    • Ensure clean water supply. If necessary test bore hole or well water before allowing its use.
    • Fence of ponds and boggy areas.
    • Clean out and disinfect feed troughs and feeding stances on a regular basis, remove rejected feed and dispose of responsibly.

Keep Stock Apart:

    • Eliminate contact with neighbouring farms and holdings, using good fences and secure gates.
    • Ensure you have isolation facility available (to keep sick animals) and that these are easy to clean and hygienic.
    • Isolate all newly brought in stock, know the signs of diseases and look out for them. Run these animals through a footbath and de-worm and vaccinate where required as per guidance of your veterinarian.
    • In the milk parlours, Milk isolated diseased animals at the last and disinfect the place after use.
    • Morning observation of each animal is must and isolates sick and diseased animals as soon as possible before being treated by vet.

Waste Management:

    • Disease causing agents can survive in slurry and farmyard manure, ensuring these products are stored before sale or use in a responsible manner can go some way to prevent disease spread.
    • If you are using the produced farm manure / slurry, store them for at least 4 months before application if at all possible.

Vermin & Rodent Control:

    • Ensure you have adequate rodent control facility.
    • Keep animals and birds away from feed stores.
    • Dispose of all feed waste in a secure and responsible manner.
    • Keep buildings in good repair so that birds and vermin cannot gain access.

Keep door and windows shut and secure when not needed for ventilation. Use plastic or wire mesh on windows that need to be left open.

Additional Notes:

Handling of Dead Animals

When an animal is found dead, particularly one for which no definite diagnosis of disease has been made, extreme caution must be taken. Improper handling may result in the spread of the infectious organism to other animals or to persons handling the carcass. It is useful to ascertain the cause of the death and keep records. Take help of diagnostic laboratories where available. Your vet will guide you about the facilities in your locality. Except in instances where certain diseases such as black quarter or anthrax are suspected, your Vet will carry out a post mortem examination of the carcass. Note that such examination is always beneficial. Do cooperate with your vet. Disposal of a carcass will depend on the reason for death. Under no circumstances, the meat should be allowed for human consumption. The carcass should be deeply buried after being covered with lime. If needed, visit local veterinary establishment and seek their guidance for disposal.

Constructing a Foot Bath for visitors and employees
The provision of footbath should not only be made at the entrance of each byre, but it should be made at the main entrance of the farm too. The length of the footbath should be according to the width of the entrance and breadth should be around 2 feet. It should be made of concrete of about 3 inches deep. The solution for the footbath may be of potassium permanganate (1: 1000 strength) or formalin (5%).


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Performance Monitoring in a Dairy Farm

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Some Points:

  • Minimum 30% of animals in production should be of first lactation.
  • First lactation animals should produce at lease 70% of Milk in the farm in any given time.
  • Individual cows should have at least 280 days lactation period.
  • Minimum 60% of the cows in the herd should breed within 60-90 days after previous calving.     Cows breeding after 140 days or more should not be in any case more than 5 %.
  • There should not be a single death due to contagious diseases.
  • Calf mortality up to 6 months of age should not be more than 5% per year.
  • Non functional teat should not be more then 1% of the total 
    ( Total teats = Number of cows x 4 )
  • Total cost on feed should not exceed 70% of net income through sale of milk.
  • At any given time, Seventy percent (70%) of animals should be in milk where as 20% should be dry pregnant and 10% should be dry empty.
  • On any given day , average days in milk ( of all animals in milk ) should be 150 to 160 days : On any day , count the number of days ( respect to each animal) in milk from date of calving and take the average for all the animals in milk )
  • Sixty percent (60 %) of the animals should breed upon first insemination (A I) it self.

Some Tips:

  • Every year try to improve the daily average milk yield by 15 to 20% ( Achievable only through good management )
  • Use semen of those bulls which can give progenies with at least 1.5 times of potential of milk production than your herd average, but in any case it should not have the capability of giving progenies with more than twice the potential of milk production. ( e.g. if your herd average is 3000 liters per lactation , use bulls having potential of giving progenies with 4500 to 5500 liter herd average  NOT bulls having potential of producing progenies giving 6500 liters or above )
  • Give incentive to the labors for correct detection of heat (estrous), Good growth rate of calves, feed and fodder saved etc.
  • Cull non-profitable animal e.g. Animals with breeding problem, Animals producing not up to the average. Every year cull 20-30% of animals from the herd and replace them from own grown young stock. Do not cull animals if you do not get better replacement. A regular breeder can be retained even if it is producing 20% less then herd average.
  • If animals are required to be purchased for replacement :
    • Purchase them from within 20 –25 kms area.
    • Know their Sire 
      Take utmost care that they are health


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